Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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dc.contributor Sistema FMUSP-HC: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP) e Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP
dc.contributor.author WANG, Haidong
ABAJOBIR, Amanuel Alemu
ABATE, Kalkidan Hassen
ABBAFATI, Cristiana
ABBAS, Kaja M.
ABD-ALLAH, Foad
ABERA, Semaw Ferede
ABRAHA, Haftom Niguse
ABU-RADDAD, Laith J.
ABU-RMEILEH, Niveen M. E.
ADEDEJI, Isaac Akinkunmi
ADEDOYIN, Rufus Adesoji
ADETIFA, Ifedayo Morayo O.
ADETOKUNBOH, Olatunji
AFSHIN, Ashkan
AGGARWAL, Rakesh
AGRAWAL, Anurag
AGRAWAL, Sutapa
KIADALIRI, Aliasghar Ahmad
AHMED, Muktar Beshir
AICHOUR, Amani Nidhal
AICHOUR, Ibthiel
AICHOUR, Miloud Taki Eddine
AIYAR, Sneha
AKANDA, Shafqat
AKINYEMIJU, Tomi F.
AKSEER, Nadia
AL-EYADHY, Ayman
LAMI, Faris Hasan Al
ALABED, Samer
ALAHDAB, Fares
AL-ALY, Ziyad
ALAM, Khurshid
ALAM, Noore
ALASFOOR, Deena
ALDRIDGE, Robert William
ALENE, Kefyalew Addis
ALHABIB, Samia
ALI, Raghib
ALIZADEH-NAVAEI, Reza
ALJUNID, Syed M.
ALKAABI, Juma M.
ALKERWI, Ala'a
ALLA, Francois
ALLAM, Shalini D.
ALLEBECK, Peter
AL-RADDADI, Rajaa
ALSHARIF, Ubai
ALTIRKAWI, Khalid A.
MARTIN, Elena Alvarez
ALVIS-GUZMAN, Nelson
AMARE, Azmeraw T.
AMEH, Emmanuel A.
AMINI, Erfan
AMMAR, Walid
AMOAKO, Yaw Ampem
ANBER, Nahla
ANDREI, Catalina Liliana
ANDROUDI, Sofia
ANSARI, Hossein
ANSHA, Mustafa Geleto
ANTONIO, Carl Abelardo T.
ANWARI, Palwasha
ARNLOV, Johan
ARORA, Megha
Al Artaman
ARYAL, Krishna Kumar
ASAYESH, Hamid
ASGEDOM, Solomon Weldegebreal
ASGHAR, Rana Jawad
ASSADI, Reza
ATEY, Tesfay Mehari
ATRE, Sachin R.
AVILA-BURGOS, Leticia
AVOKPAHO, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
AWASTHI, Ashish
QUINTANILLA, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
BABALOLA, Tesleem Kayode
BACHA, Umar
BADAWI, Alaa
BALAKRISHNAN, Kalpana
BALALLA, Shivanthi
BARAC, Aleksandra
BARBER, Ryan M.
BARBOZA, Miguel A.
BARKER-COLLO, Suzanne L.
BARNIGHAUSEN, Till
BARQUERA, Simon
BARREGARD, Lars
BARRERO, Lope H.
BAUNE, Bernhard T.
BAZARGAN-HEJAZI, Shahrzad
BEDI, Neeraj
BEGHI, Ettore
BEJOT, Yannick
BEKELE, Bayu Begashaw
BELL, Michelle L.
BELLO, Aminu K.
BENNETT, Derrick A.
BENNETT, James R.
BENSENOR, Isabela M. FMUSP-HC
BENSON, Jennifer
BERHANE, Adugnaw
BERHE, Derbew Fikadu
BERNABE, Eduardo
BEURAN, Mircea
BEYENE, Addisu Shunu
BHALA, Neeraj
BHANSALI, Anil
BHAUMIK, Soumyadeep
BHUTTA, Zulfiqar A.
BIKBOV, Boris
BIRUNGI, Charles
BIRYUKOV, Stan
BISANZIO, Donal
BIZUAYEHU, Habtamu Mellie
BJERREGAARD, Peter
BLOSSER, Christopher D.
BONEYA, Dube Jara
BOUFOUS, Soufiane
BOURNE, Rupert R. A.
BRAZINOVA, Alexandra
BREITBORDE, Nicholas J. K.
BRENNER, Hermann
BRUGHA, Traolach S.
BUKHMAN, Gene
NEGESA, Lemma
BULTO, Bulto
BUMGARNER, Blair Randal
BURCH, Michael
BUTT, Zahid A.
CAHILL, Leah E.
CAHUANA-HURTADO, Lucero
CAMPOS-NONATO, Ismael Ricardo
CAR, Josip
CAR, Mate
CRDENAS, Rosario
CARPENTER, David O.
CARRERO, Juan Jesus
CARTER, Austin
CASTANEDA-ORJUELA, Carlos A.
RIVAS, Jacqueline Castillo
CASTRO, Franz F.
CASTRO, Ruben Estanislao
CATALA-LOPEZ, Ferran
CHEN, Honglei
CHIANG, Peggy Pei-Chia
CHIBALABALA, Mirriam
CHISUMPA, Vesper Hichilombwe
CHITHEER, Abdulaal A.
CHOI, Jee-Young Jasmine
CHRISTENSEN, Hanne
CHRISTOPHER, Devasahayam Jesudas
CIOBANU, Liliana G.
CIRILLO, Massimo
COHEN, Aaron J.
COLQUHOUN, Samantha M.
CORESH, Josef
CRIQUI, Michael H.
CROMWELL, Elizabeth A.
CRUMP, John A.
DANDONA, Lalit
DANDONA, Rakhi
DARGAN, Paul I.
NEVES, Jose das
DAVEY, Gail
DAVITOIU, Dragos V.
DAVLETOV, Kairat
COURTEN, Barbora de
LEO, Diego De
DEGENHARDT, Louisa
DEIPARINE, Selina
DELLAVALLE, Robert P.
DERIBE, Kebede
DERIBEW, Amare
JARLAIS, Don C. Des
DEY, Subhojit
DHARMARATNE, Samath D.
DHERANI, Mukesh K.
DIAZ-TORNE, Cesar
DING, Eric L.
DIXIT, Priyanka
DJALALINIA, Shirin
Huyen Phuc Do
DOKU, David Teye
DONNELLY, Christl Ann
PRISCILA, Kadine
SANTOS, Bender dos
DOUWES-SCHULTZ, Dirk
DRISCOLL, Tim R.
DUAN, Leilei
DUBEY, Manisha
DUNCAN, Bruce Bartholow
DWIVEDI, Laxmi Kant
EBRAHIMI, Hedyeh
BCHERAOUI, Charbel El
ELLINGSEN, Christian Lycke
ENAYATI, Ahmadali
ENDRIES, Aman Yesuf
ERMAKOV, Sergey Petrovich
ESHETIE, Setegn
ESHRATI, Babak
ESKANDARIEH, Sharareh
ESTEGHAMATI, Alireza
ESTEP, Kara
FANUEL, Belayneh Bekele Fanuel
FARO, Andre
FARVID, Maryam S.
FARZADFAR, Farshad
FEIGIN, Valery L.
FERESHTEHNEJAD, Seyed-Mohammad
FERNANDES, Jefferson G.
FERNANDES, Joao C.
FEYISSA, Tesfaye Regassa
FILIP, Irina
FISCHER, Florian
FOIGT, Nataliya
FOREMAN, Kyle J.
FRANK, Tahvi
FRANKLIN, Richard C.
FRASER, Maya
FRIEDMAN, Joseph
FROSTAD, Joseph J.
FULLMAN, Nancy
FURST, Thomas
FURTADO, Joao M.
FUTRAN, Neal D.
GAKIDOU, Emmanuela
GAMBASHIDZE, Ketevan
GAMKRELIDZE, Amiran
GANKPE, Fortune Gbetoho
GARCIA-BASTEIRO, Alberto L.
GEBREGERGS, Gebremedhin Berhe
GEBREHIWOT, Tsegaye Tewelde
GEBREKIDAN, Kahsu Gebrekirstos
GEBREMICHAEL, Mengistu Welday
GELAYE, Amha Admasie
GELEIJNSE, Johanna M.
GEMECHU, Bikila Lencha
GEMECHU, Kasiye Shiferaw
GENOVA-MALERAS, Ricard
GESESEW, Hailay Abrha
GETHING, Peter W.
GIBNEY, Katherine B.
GILL, Paramjit Singh
GILLUM, Richard F.
GIREF, Ababi Zergaw
GIRMA, Bedilu Weji
GIUSSANI, Giorgia
GOENKA, Shifalika
GOMEZ, Beatriz
GONA, Philimon N.
GOPALANI, Sameer Vali
GOULART, Alessandra Carvalho FMUSP-HC
GRAETZ, Nicholas
GUGNANI, Harish Chander
GUPTA, Prakash C.
GUPTA, Rahul
GUPTA, Rajeev
GUPTA, Tanush
GUPTA, Vipin
HAAGSMA, Juanita A.
HAFEZI-NEJAD, Nima
BIDGOLI, Hassan Haghparast
HAKUZIMANA, Alex
HALASA, Yara A.
HAMADEH, Randah Ribhi
HAMBISA, Mitiku Teshome
HAMIDI, Samer
HAMMAMI, Mouhanad
HANCOCK, Jamie
HANDAL, Alexis J.
HANKEY, Graeme J.
HAO, Yuantao
HARB, Hilda L.
HARERI, Habtamu Abera
HARIKRISHNAN, Sivadasanpillai
HARO, Josep Maria
HASSANVAND, Mohammad Sadegh
HAVMOELLER, Rasmus
HAY, Roderick J.
HAY, Simon I.
HE, Fei
HEREDIA-PI, Ileana Beatriz
HERTELIU, Claudiu
HILAWE, Esayas Haregot
HOEK, Hans W.
HORITA, Nobuyuki
HOSGOOD, H. Dean
HOSTIUC, Sorin
HOTEZ, Peter J.
HOY, Damian G.
HSAIRI, Mohamed
HTET, Aung Soe
HU, Guoqing
HUANG, Hsiang
HUANG, John J.
IBURG, Kim Moesgaard
IGUMBOR, Ehimario Uche
ILEANU, Bogdan Vasile
INOUE, Manami
IRENSO, Asnake Ararsa
IRVINE, Caleb M. S.
ISLAM, Nazrul
JACOBSEN, Kathryn H.
JAENISCH, Thomas
JAHANMEHR, Nader
JAKOVLJEVIC, Mihajlo B.
JAVANBAKHT, Mehdi
JAYATILLEKE, Achala Upendra
JEEMON, Panniyammakal
JENSEN, Paul N.
JHA, Vivekanand
JIN, Ye
JOHN, Denny
JOHN, Oommen
JOHNSON, Sarah Charlotte
JONAS, Jost B.
JURISSON, Mikk
KABIR, Zubair
KADEL, Rajendra
KAHSAY, Amaha
KALKONDE, Yogeshwar
KAMAL, Ritul
KAN, Haidong
KARCH, Andre
KAREMA, Corine Kakizi
KARIMI, Seyed M.
KARTHIKEYAN, Ganesan
KASAEIAN, Amir
KASSAW, Nigussie Assefa
KASSEBAUM, Nicholas J.
KASTOR, Anshul
KATIKIREDDI, Srinivasa Vittal
KAUL, Anil
KAWAKAMI, Norito
KAZANJAN, Konstantin
KEIYORO, Peter Njenga
KELBORE, Sefonias Getachew
KEMP, Andrew Haddon
KENGNE, Andre Pascal
KEREN, Andre
KERESELIDZE, Maia
KESAVACHANDRAN, Chandrasekharan Nair
KETEMA, Ezra Belay
KHADER, Yousef Saleh
KHALIL, Ibrahim A.
KHAN, Ejaz Ahmad
KHAN, Gulfaraz
KHANG, Young-Ho
KHERA, Sahil
KHOJA, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah
KHOSRAVI, Mohammad Hossein
KIBRET, Getiye Dejenu
KIELING, Christian
KIM, Cho-Il
KIM, Daniel
KIM, Pauline
KIM, Sungroul
KIM, Yun Jin
KIMOKOTI, Ruth W.
KINFU, Yohannes
KISHAWI, Sami
KISSIMOVA-SKARBEK, Katarzyna A.
KISSOON, Niranjan
KIVIMAKI, Mika
KNUDSEN, Ann Kristin
KOKUBO, Yoshihiro
KOPEC, Jacek A.
KOSEN, Soewarta
KOUL, Parvaiz A.
KOYANAGI, Ai
KRAVCHENKO, Michael
KROHN, Kristopher J.
DEFO, Barthelemy Kuate
BICER, Burcu Kucuk
KUIPERS, Ernst J.
KULIKOFF, Xie Rachel
KULKARNI, Veena S.
KUMAR, G. Anil
KUMAR, Pushpendra
KUMSA, Fekede Asefa
KUTZ, Michael
LACHAT, Carl
LAGAT, Abraham K.
LAGER, Anton Carl Jonas
LAL, Dharmesh Kumar
LALLOO, Ratilal
LAMBERT, Nkurunziza
LAN, Qing
LANSINGH, Van C.
LARSON, Heidi J.
LARSSON, Anders
LARYEA, Dennis Odai
LAVADOS, Pablo M.
LAXMAIAH, Avula
LEE, Paul H.
LEIGH, James
LEUNG, Janni
LEUNG, Ricky
LEVI, Miriam
LI, Yongmei
LIAO, Yu
LIBEN, Misgan Legesse
LIM, Stephen S.
LINN, Shai
LIPSHULTZ, Steven E.
LIU, Shiwei
LODHA, Rakesh
LOGROSCINO, Giancarlo
LORCH, Scott A.
LORKOWSKI, Stefan
LOTUFO, Paulo A. FMUSP-HC
LOZANO, Rafael
LUNEVICIUS, Raimundas
LYONS, Ronan A.
MA, Stefan
MACARAYAN, Erlyn Rachelle King
MACHADO, Isis Eloah
MACKAY, Mark T.
RAZEK, Mohammed Magdy Abd el
MAGIS-RODRIGUEZ, Carlos
MAHDAVI, Mahdi
MAJDAN, Marek
MAJDZADEH, Reza
MAJEED, Azeem
MALEKZADEH, Reza
MALHOTRA, Rajesh
MALTA, Deborah Carvalho
MANTOVANI, Lorenzo G.
MANYAZEWAL, Tsegahun
MAPOMA, Chabila C.
MARCZAK, Laurie B.
MARKS, Guy B.
MARTINEZ-RAGA, Jose
MARTINS-MELO, Francisco Rogerlndio
MASSANO, Joao
MAULIK, Pallab K.
MAYOSI, Bongani M.
MAZIDI, Mohsen
MCALINDEN, Colm
MCGARVEY, Stephen Theodore
MCGRATH, John J.
MCKEE, Martin
MEHATA, Suresh
MEHNDIRATTA, Man Mohan
MEHTA, Kala M.
MEIER, Toni
MEKONNEN, Tefera Chane
MELES, Kidanu Gebremariam
MEMIAH, Peter
MEMISH, Ziad A.
MENDOZA, Walter
MENGESHA, Melkamu Merid
MENGISTIE, Mubarek Abera
TADESE, Desalegn
MENON, Mengistu Geetha R.
MENOTA, Bereket Gebremichael
MENSAH, George A.
MERETOJA, Atte
MERETOJA, Tuomo J.
MEZGEBE, Haftay Berhane
MICHA, Renata
MIKESELL, Joseph
MILLER, Ted R.
MILLS, Edward J.
MINNIG, Shawn
MIRAREFIN, Mojde
MIRRAKHIMOV, Erkin M.
MISGANAW, Awoke
MISHRA, Shiva Raj
MOHAMMAD, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
MOHAMMADI, Alireza
MOHAMMED, Kedir Endris Shafiu Mohammed
MOHAN, Murali B. V.
MOHANTY, Sanjay K.
MOKDAD, Ali H.
ASSAYE, Ashagre Molla
MOLLENKOPF, Sarah K.
MOLOKHIA, Mariam
MONASTA, Lorenzo
HERNANDEZ, Julio Cesar Montanez
MONTICO, Marcella
MOONEY, Meghan D.
MOORE, Ami R.
MORADI-LAKEH, Maziar
MORAGA, Paula
MORAWSKA, Lidia
VELASQUEZ, Ilais Moreno
MORI, Rintaro
MORRISON, Shane D.
MRUTS, Kalayu Birhane
MUELLER, Ulrich O.
MULLANY, Erin
MULLER, Kate
VENKATA, Gudlavalleti
MURTHY, Satyanarayana
MURTHY, Srinivas
MUSA, Kamarul Imran
NACHEGA, Jean B.
NAGATA, Chie
NAGEL, Gabriele
NAGHAVI, Mohsen
NAIDOO, Kovin S.
NANDA, Lipika
NANGIA, Vinay
NASCIMENTO, Bruno Ramos
NATARAJAN, Gopalakrishnan
NEGOI, Ionut
Cuong Tat Nguyen
NINGRUM, Dina Nur Anggraini
NISAR, Muhammad Imran
NOMURA, Marika
Vuong Minh Nong
NORHEIM, Ole F.
NORRVING, Bo
NOUBIAP, Jean Jacques N.
NYAKARAHUKA, Luke
OBERMEYER, Carla Makhlouf
O'DONNELL, Martin J.
OGBO, Felix Akpojene
OH, In-Hwan
OKORO, Anselm
OLADIMEJI, Olanrewaju
OLAGUNJU, Andrew Toyin
OLUSANYA, Bolajoko Olubukunola
OLUSANYA, Jacob Olusegun
OREN, Eyal
ORTIZ, Alberto
OSGOOD-ZIMMERMAN, Aaron
OTA, Erika
OWOLABI, Mayowa O.
OYEKALE, Abayomi Samuel
PA, Mahesh
PACELLA, Rosana E.
PAKHALE, Smita
PANA, Adrian
PANDA, Basant Kumar
PANDA-JONAS, Songhomitra
PARK, Eun-Kee
PARSAEIAN, Mahboubeh
PATEL, Tejas
PATTEN, Scott B.
PATTON, George C.
PAUDEL, Deepak
PEREIRA, David M.
PEREZ-PADILLA, Rogelio
PEREZ-RUIZ, Fernando
PERICO, Norberto
PERVAIZ, Aslam
PESUDOVS, Konrad
PETERSON, Carrie Beth
PETRI, William Arthur
PETZOLD, Max
PHILLIPS, Michael Robert
PIEL, Frederic B.
PIGOTT, David M.
PISHGAR, Farhad
PLASS, Dietrich
POLINDER, Suzanne
POPOVA, Svetlana
POSTMA, Maarten J.
POULTON, Richie G.
POURMALEK, Farshad
PRASAD, Narayan
PURWAR, Manorama
QORBANI, Mostafa
RABIEE, Rynaz H. S.
RADFAR, Amir
RAFAY, Anwar
RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Afarin
RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Vafa
RAHMAN, Mahfuzar
RAHMAN, Mohammad Hifz Ur
RAHMAN, Sajjad Ur
RAI, Rajesh Kumar
RAJSIC, Sasa
RAM, Usha
RANA, Saleem M.
RANABHAT, Chhabi Lal
RAO, Paturi Vishnupriya
RAWAF, Salman
RAY, Sarah E.
REGO, Maria Albertina Santiago
REHM, Jugen
REINER, Robert C.
REMUZZI, Giuseppe
RENZAHO, Andre M. N. N.
RESNIKOFF, Serge
REZAEI, Satar
REZAI, Mohammad Sadegh
RIBEIRO, Antonio L.
ROKNI, Mohammad Bagher
RONFANI, Luca
ROSHANDEL, Gholamreza
ROTH, Gregory A.
ROTHENBACHER, Dietrich
ROY, Ambuj
RUBAGOTTI, Enrico
RUHAGO, George Mugambage
SAADAT, Soheil
SABDE, Yogesh Damodar
SACHDEV, Perminder S.
SADAT, Nafis
SAFDARIAN, Mahdi
SAFIRI, Sare Safi Saeid
SAGAR, Rajesh
SAHATHEVAN, Ramesh
SAHEBKAR, Amirhossein
SAHRAIAN, Mohammad Ali
SALAMA, Joseph
SALAMATI, Payman
SALOMON, Joshua A.
SALVI, Sundeep Santosh
SAMY, Abdallah M.
SANABRIA, Juan Ramon
SANCHEZ-NINO, Maria Dolores
SANTOS, Itamar S. FMUSP-HC
MILICEVIC, Milena M. Santric
SARMIENTO-SUAREZ, Rodrigo
SARTORIUS, Benn
SATPATHY, Maheswar
SAWHNEY, Monika
SAXENA, Sonia
SAYLAN, Mete I.
SCHMIDT, Maria Ines
SCHNEIDER, Ione J. C.
SCHUTTE, Aletta E.
SCHWEBEL, David C.
SCHWENDICKE, Falk
SEEDAT, Soraya
SEID, Abdulbasit Musa
SEPANLOU, Sadaf G.
SERVAN-MORI, Edson E.
SHACKELFORD, Katya Anne
SHAHEEN, Amira
SHAHRAZ, Saeid
SHAIKH, Masood Ali
SHAMSIPOUR, Mansour
SHAMSIZADEH, Morteza
ISLAM, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
SHARMA, Jayendra
SHARMA, Rajesh
SHE, Jun
SHEN, Jiabin
SHETTY, Balakrishna P.
SHI, Peilin
SHIBUYA, Kenji
SHIGEMATSU, Mika
SHIRI, Rahman
SHIUE, Ivy
SHRIME, Mark G.
SIGFUSDOTTIR, Inga Dora
SILBERBERG, Donald H.
SILPAKIT, Naris
SILVA, Diego Augusto Santos
SILVA, Joao Pedro
SILVEIRA, Dayane Gabriele Alves
SINDI, Shireen
SINGH, Abhishek
SINGH, Jasvinder A.
SINGH, Prashant Kumar
SINGH, Virendra
SINHA, Dhirendra Narain
SKIADARESI, Eirini
SLIGAR, Amber
SMITH, David L.
SOBAIH, Badr H. A.
SOBNGWI, Eugene
SONEJI, Samir
SORIANO, Joan B.
SREERAMAREDDY, Chandrashekhar T.
SRINIVASAN, Vinay
STATHOPOULOU, Vasiliki
STEEL, Nicholas
STEIN, Dan J.
STEINER, Caitlyn
STOCKL, Heidi
STOKES, Mark Andrew
STRONG, Mark
SUFIYAN, Muawiyyah Babale
SULIANKATCHI, Rizwan Abdulkader
SUNGUYA, Bruno F.
SUR, Patrick J.
SWAMINATHAN, Soumya
SYKES, Bryan L.
SZOEKE, Cassandra E. I.
TABARES-SEISDEDOS, Rafael
TADAKAMADLA, Santosh Kumar
TADESE, Fentaw
TANDON, Nikhil
TANNE, David
TARAJIA, Musharaf
TAVAKKOLI, Mohammad
TAVEIRA, Nuno
TEHRANI-BANIHASHEMI, Arash
TEKELAB, Tesfalidet
TEKLE, Dejen Yemane
SHIFA, Girma Temam
TEMSAH, Mohamad-Hani
TERKAWI, Abdullah Sulieman
TESEMA, Cheru Leshargie
TESSSEMA, Belay
THEIS, Andrew
THOMAS, Nihal
THOMPSON, Alex H.
THOMSON, Alan J.
THRIFT, Amanda G.
TIRUYE, Tenaw Yimer
TOBE-GAI, Ruoyan
TONELLI, Marcello
TOPOR-MADRY, Roman
TOPOUZIS, Fotis
TORTAJADA, Miguel
TRAN, Bach Xuan
TRUJILLO, Thomas Truelsen Ulises
TSILIMPARIS, Nikolaos
TUEM, Kald Beshir
TUZCU, Emin Murat
TYROVOLAS, Stefanos
UKWAJA, Kingsley Nnanna
UNDURRAGA, Eduardo A.
UTHMAN, Olalekan A.
UZOCHUKWU, Benjamin S. Chudi
BOVEN, Job F. M. van
VARAKIN, Yuri Y.
VARUGHESE, Santosh
VASANKARI, Tommi
VASCONCELOS, Ana Maria Nogales
VENKETASUBRAMANIAN, Narayanaswamy
VIDAVALUR, Ramesh
VIOLANTE, Francesco S.
VISHNU, Abhishek
VLADIMIROV, Sergey K.
VLASSOV, Vasiliy Victorovich
VOLLSET, Stein Emil
VOS, Theo
WAID, Jillian L.
WAKAYO, Tolassa
WANG, Yuan-Pang FMUSP-HC
WEICHENTHAL, Scott
WEIDERPASS, Elisabete
WEINTRAUB, Robert G.
WERDECKER, Andrea
WESANA, Joshua
WIJERATNE, Tissa
WILKINSON, James D.
WIYSONGE, Charles Shey
WOLDEYES, Belete Getahun
WOLFE, Charles D. A.
WORKICHO, Abdulhalik
WORKIE, Shimelash Bitew
XAVIER, Denis
XU, Gelin
YAGHOUBI, Mohsen
YAKOB, Bereket
YALEW, Ayalnesh Zemene
YAN, Lijing L.
YANO, Yuichiro
YASERI, Mehdi
YE, Pengpeng
YIMAM, Hassen Hamid
YIP, Paul
YIRSAW, Biruck Desalegn
YONEMOTO, Naohiro
YOON, Seok-Jun
YOTEBIENG, Marcel
YOUNIS, Mustafa Z.
ZAIDI, Zoubida
ZAKI, Maysaa El Sayed
ZEEB, Hajo
ZENEBE, Zerihun Menlkalew
ZERFU, Taddese Alemu
ZHANG, Anthony Lin
ZHANG, Xueying
ZODPEY, Sanjay
ZUHLKE, Liesl Joanna
LOPEZ, Alan D.
MURRAY, Christopher J. L.
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation LANCET, v.390, n.10100, p.1084-1150, 2017
dc.identifier.issn 0140-6736
dc.identifier.uri http://observatorio.fm.usp.br/handle/OPI/21818
dc.description.abstract Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Methods We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0.5% and where VR systems were less than 65% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone. Findings Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28% in 1970 to a peak of 45% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86.9 years (95% UI 86.7-87.2), and for men in Singapore, at 81.3 years (78.8-83.7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016. Interpretation Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled.
dc.description.sponsorship · Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
· National Institute on Aging
· National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
dc.relation.ispartof Lancet
dc.rights restrictedAccess
dc.subject.other developing-countries; russian mortality; child-mortality; health; hiv; metaanalysis; survival; alcohol; income; death
dc.title Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
dc.type article
dc.rights.holder Copyright ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
dc.contributor.groupauthor GBD 2016 Mortality Collaborators
dc.description.group LIM/20
dc.description.group LIM/23
dc.description.group LIM/51
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31833-0
dc.identifier.pmid 28919115
dc.type.category original article
dc.type.version publishedVersion
hcfmusp.author BENSENOR, Isabela M.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author GOULART, Alessandra Carvalho:HU:SCPACEX-62
hcfmusp.author LOTUFO, Paulo A.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author SANTOS, Itamar S.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author WANG, Yuan-Pang:HC:IPQ
hcfmusp.origem.id WOS:000410630000002
hcfmusp.origem.id 2-s2.0-85031719180
hcfmusp.publisher.city NEW YORK
hcfmusp.publisher.country USA
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dc.description.index MEDLINE
dc.identifier.eissn 1474-547X
hcfmusp.citation.scopus 207
hcfmusp.citation.wos 195
hcfmusp.citation.toppaper Highly


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