Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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dc.contributor Sistema FMUSP-HC: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP) e Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP
dc.contributor.author VOS, Theo
ABAJOBIR, Amanuel Alemu
ABBAFATI, Cristiana
ABBAS, Kaja M.
ABATE, Kalkidan Hassen
ABD-ALLAH, Foad
ABDULLE, Abdishakur M.
ABEBO, Teshome Abuka
ABERA, Semaw Ferede
ABOYANS, Victor
ABU-RADDAD, Laith J.
ACKERMAN, Ilana N.
ADAMU, Abdu Abdullahi
ADETOKUNBOH, Olatunji
AFARIDEH, Mohsen
AFSHIN, Ashkan
AGARWAL, Sanjay Kumar
AGGARWAL, Rakesh
AGRAWAL, Anurag
AGRAWAL, Sutapa
KIADALIRI, Aliasghar Ahmad
AHMADIEH, Hamid
AHMED, Muktar Beshir
AICHOUR, Amani Nidhal
AICHOUR, Ibtihel
AICHOUR, Miloud Taki Eddine
AIYAR, Sneha
AKINYEMI, Rufus Olusola
AKSEER, Nadia
LAMI, Faris Hasan Al
ALAHDAB, Fares
AL-ALY, Ziyad
ALAM, Khurshid
ALAM, Noore
ALAM, Tahiya
ALASFOOR, Deena
ALENE, Kefyalew Addis
ALI, Raghib
ALIZADEH-NAVAEI, Reza
ALKERWI, Ala'a
ALLA, Francois
ALLEBECK, Peter
ALLEN, Christine
AL-MASKARI, Fatma
AL-RADDADI, Rajaa
ALSHARIF, Ubai
ALSOWAIDI, Shirina
ALTIRKAWI, Khalid A.
AMARE, Azmeraw T.
AMINI, Erfan
AMMAR, Walid
AMOAKO, Yaw Ampem
ANDERSEN, Hjalte H.
ANTONIO, Carl Abelardo T.
ANWARI, Palwasha
ARNLOV, Johan
ARTAMAN, Al
ARYAL, Krishna Kumar
ASAYESH, Hamid
ASGEDOM, Solomon W.
ASSADI, Reza
ATEY, Tesfay Mehari
ATNAFU, Niguse Tadele
ATRE, Sachin R.
AVILA-BURGOS, Leticia
AVOKPAHO, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
AWASTHI, Ashish
QUINTANILLA, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
SALEEM, Huda Omer Ba
BACHA, Umar
BADAWI, Alaa
BALAKRISHNAN, Kalpana
BANERJEE, Amitava
BANNICK, Marlena S.
BARAC, Aleksandra
BARBER, Ryan M.
BARKER-COLLO, Suzanne L.
BAERNIGHAUSEN, Till
BARQUERA, Simon
BARREGARD, Lars
BARRERO, Lope H.
BASU, Sanjay
BATTISTA, Bob
BATTLE, Katherine E.
BAUNE, Bernhard T.
BAZARGAN-HEJAZI, Shahrzad
BEARDSLEY, Justin
BEDI, Neeraj
BEGHI, Ettore
BEJOT, Yannick
BEKELE, Bayu Begashaw
BELL, Michelle L.
BENNETT, Derrick A.
BENSENOR, Isabela M. FMUSP-HC
BENSON, Jennifer
BERHANE, Adugnaw
BERHE, Derbew Fikadu
BERNABE, Eduardo
BETSU, Balem Demtsu
BEURAN, Mircea
BEYENE, Addisu Shunu
BHALA, Neeraj
BHANSALI, Anil
BHATT, Samir
BHUTTA, Zulfiqar A.
BIADGILIGN, Sibhatu
BIENHOFF, Kelly
BIKBOV, Boris
BIRUNGI, Charles
BIRYUKOV, Stan
BISANZIO, Donal
BIZUAYEHU, Habtamu Mellie
BONEYA, Dube Jara
BOUFOUS, Soufiane
BOURNE, Rupert R. A.
BRAZINOVA, Alexandra
BRUGHA, Traolach S.
BUCHBINDER, Rachelle
BULTO, Lemma Negesa Bulto
BUMGARNER, Blair R.
BUTT, Zahid A.
CAHUANA-HURTADO, Lucero
CAMERON, Ewan
CAR, Mate
CARABIN, Helene
CARAPETIS, Jonathan R.
CARDENAS, Rosario
CARPENTER, David O.
CARRERO, Juan Jesus
CARTER, Austin
CARVALHO, Felix
CASEY, Daniel C.
CASO, Valeria
CASTANEDA-ORJUELA, Carlos A.
CASTLE, Chris D.
CATALA-LOPEZ, Ferran
CHANG, Hsing-Yi
CHANG, Jung-Chen
CHARLSON, Fiona J.
CHEN, Honglei
CHIBALABALA, Mirriam
CHIBUEZE, Chioma Ezinne
CHISUMPA, Vesper Hichilombwe
CHITHEER, Abdulaal A.
CHRISTOPHER, Devasahayam Jesudas
CIOBANU, Liliana G.
CIRILLO, Massimo
COLOMBARA, Danny
COOPER, Cyrus
CORTESI, Paolo Angelo
CRIQUI, Michael H.
CRUMP, John A.
DADI, Abel Fekadu
DALAL, Koustuv
DANDONA, Lalit
DANDONA, Rakhi
NEVES, Jose das
DAVITOIU, Dragos V.
COURTEN, Barbora de
LEO, Diego De
DEGENHARDT, Louisa
DEIPARINE, Selina
DELLAVALLE, Robert P.
DERIBE, Kebede
JARLAIS, Don C. Des
DEY, Subhojit
DHARMARATNE, Samath D.
DHILLON, Preet Kaur
DICKER, Daniel
DING, Eric L.
DJALALINIA, Shirin
Huyen Phuc Do
DORSEY, E. Ray
SANTOS, Kadine Priscila Bender dos
DOUWES-SCHULTZ, Dirk
DOYLE, Kerrie E.
DRISCOLL, Tim R.
DUBEY, Manisha
DUNCAN, Bruce Bartholow
EL-KHATIB, Ziad Ziad
ELLERSTRAND, Jerisha
ENAYATI, Ahmadali
ENDRIES, Aman Yesuf
ERMAKOV, Sergey Petrovich
ERSKINE, Holly E.
ESHRATI, Babak
ESKANDARIEH, Sharareh
ESTEGHAMATI, Alireza
ESTEP, Kara
FANUEL, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele
FARINHA, Carla Sofia e Sa
FARO, Andre
FARZADFAR, Farshad
FAZELI, Mir Sohail
FEIGIN, Valery L.
FERESHTEHNEJAD, Seyed-Mohammad
FERNANDES, Joao C.
FERRARI, Alize J.
FEYISSA, Tesfaye Regassa
FILIP, Irina
FISCHER, Florian
FITZMAURICE, Christina
FLAXMAN, Abraham D.
FLOR, Luisa Sorio
FOIGT, Nataliya
FOREMAN, Kyle J.
FRANKLIN, Richard C.
FULLMAN, Nancy
FURST, Thomas
FURTADO, Joao M.
FUTRAN, Neal D.
GAKIDOU, Emmanuela
GANJI, Morsaleh
GARCIA-BASTEIRO, Alberto L.
GEBRE, Teshome
GEBREHIWOT, Tsegaye Tewelde
GELETO, Ayele
GEMECHU, Bikila Lencha
GESESEW, Hailay Abrha
GETHING, Peter W.
GHAJAR, Alireza
GIBNEY, Katherine B.
GILL, Paramjit Singh
GILLUM, Richard F.
GINAWI, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed
GIREF, Ababi Zergay
GISHU, Melkamu Dedefo
GIUSSANI, Giorgia
GODWIN, William W.
GOLD, Audra L.
GOLDBERG, Ellen M.
GONA, Philimon N.
GOODRIDGE, Amador
GOPALANI, Sameer Vali
GOTO, Atsushi
GOULART, Alessandra Carvalho FMUSP-HC
GRISWOLD, Max
GUGNANI, Harish Chander
GUPTA, Rahul
GUPTA, Rajeev
GUPTA, Tanush
GUPTA, Vipin
HAFEZI-NEJAD, Nima
HAILU, Alemayehu Desalegne
HAILU, Gessessew Bugssa
HAMADEH, Randah Ribhi
HAMIDI, Samer
HANDAL, Alexis J.
HANKEY, Graeme J.
HAO, Yuantao
HARB, Hilda L.
HARERI, Habtamu Abera
HARO, Josep Maria
HARVEY, James
HASSANVAND, Mohammad Sadegh
HAVMOELLER, Rasmus
HAWLEY, Caitlin
HAY, Roderick J.
HAY, Simon I.
HENRY, Nathaniel J.
HEREDIA-PI, Ileana Beatriz
HEYDARPOUR, Pouria
HOEK, Hans W.
HOFFMAN, Howard J.
HORITA, Nobuyuki
HOSGOOD, H. Dean
HOSTIUC, Sorin
HOTEZ, Peter J.
HOY, Damian G.
HTET, Aung Soe
HU, Guoqing
HUANG, Hsiang
HUYNH, Chantal
IBURG, Kim Moesgaard
IGUMBOR, Ehimario Uche
IKEDA, Chad
IRVINE, Caleb Mackay Salpeter
JACOBSEN, Kathryn H.
JAHANMEHR, Nader
JAKOVLJEVIC, Mihajlo B.
JASSAL, Simerjot K.
JAVANBAKHT, Mehdi
JAYARAMAN, Sudha P.
JEEMON, Panniyammakal
JENSEN, Paul N.
JHA, Vivekanand
JIANG, Guohong
JOHN, Denny
JOHNSON, Catherine O.
JOHNSON, Sarah Charlotte
JONAS, Jost B.
JURISSON, Mikk
KABIR, Zubair
KADEL, Rajendra
KAHSAY, Amaha
KAMAL, Ritul
KAN, Haidong
KARAM, Nadim E.
KARCH, Andre
KAREMA, Corine Kakizi
KASAEIAN, Amir
KASSA, Getachew Mullu
KASSAW, Nigussie Assefa
KASSEBAUM, Nicholas J.
KASTOR, Anshul
KATIKIREDDI, Srinivasa Vittal
KAUL, Anil
KAWAKAMI, Norito
KEIYORO, Peter Njenga
KENGNE, Andre Pascal
KEREN, Andre
KHADER, Yousef Saleh
KHALIL, Ibrahim A.
KHAN, Ejaz Ahmad
KHANG, Young-Ho
KHOSRAVI, Ardeshir
KHUBCHANDANI, Jagdish
KIELING, Christian
KIM, Daniel
KIM, Pauline
KIM, Yun Jin
KIMOKOTI, Ruth W.
KINFU, Yohannes
KISA, Adnan
KISSIMOVA-SKARBEK, Katarzyna A.
KIVIMAKI, Mika
KNUDSEN, Ann Kristin
KOKUBO, Yoshihiro
KOLTE, Dhaval
KOPEC, Jacek A.
KOSEN, Soewarta
KOUL, Parvaiz A.
KOYANAGI, Ai
KRAVCHENKO, Michael
KRISHNASWAMI, Sanjay
KROHN, Kristopher J.
DEFO, Barthelemy Kuate
BICER, Burcu Kucuk
KUMAR, G. Anil
KUMAR, Pushpendra
KUMAR, Sanjiv
KYU, Hmwe H.
LAL, Dharmesh Kumar
LALLOO, Ratilal
LAMBERT, Nkurunziza
LAN, Qing
LARSSON, Anders
LAVADOS, Pablo M.
LEASHER, Janet L.
LEE, Jong-Tae
LEE, Paul H.
LEIGH, James
LESHARGIE, Cheru Tesema
LEUNG, Janni
LEUNG, Ricky
LEVI, Miriam
LI, Yichong
LI, Yongmei
KAPPE, Darya Li
LIANG, Xiaofeng
LIBEN, Misgan Legesse
LIM, Stephen S.
LINN, Shai
LIU, Angela
LIU, Patrick Y.
LIU, Shiwei
LIU, Yang
LODHA, Rakesh
LOGROSCINO, Giancarlo
LONDON, Stephanie J.
LOOKER, Katharine J.
LOPEZ, Alan D.
LORKOWSKI, Stefan
LOTUFO, Paulo A. FMUSP-HC
LOW, Nicola
LOZANO, Rafael
LUCAS, Timothy C. D.
MACARAYAN, Erlyn Rachelle King
RAZEK, Hassan Magdy Abd El
RAZEK, Mohammed Magdy Abd El
MAHDAVI, Mahdi
MAJDAN, Marek
MAJDZADEH, Reza
MAJEED, Azeem
MALEKZADEH, Reza
MALHOTRA, Rajesh
MALTA, Deborah Carvalho
MAMUN, Abdullah A.
MANGUERRA, Helena
MANHERTZ, Treh
MANTILLA, Ana
MANTOVANI, Lorenzo G.
MAPOMA, Chabila C.
MARCZAK, Laurie B.
MARTINEZ-RAGA, Jose
MARTINS-MELO, Francisco Rogerlandio
MARTOPULLO, Ira
MAERZ, Winfried
MATHUR, Manu Raj
MAZIDI, Mohsen
MCALINDEN, Colm
MCGAUGHEY, Madeline
MCGRATH, John J.
MCKEE, Martin
MCNELLAN, Claire
MEHATA, Suresh
MEHNDIRATTA, Man Mohan
MEKONNEN, Tefera Chane
MEMIAH, Peter
MEMISH, Ziad A.
MENDOZA, Walter
MENGISTIE, Mubarek Abera
MENGISTU, Desalegn Tadese
MENSAH, George A.
MERETOJA, Atte
MERETOJA, Tuomo J.
MEZGEBE, Haftay Berhane
MICHA, Renata
MILLEAR, Anoushka
MILLER, Ted R.
MILLS, Edward J.
MIRAREFIN, Mojde
MIRRAKHIMOV, Erkin M.
MISGANAW, Awoke
MISHRA, Shiva Raj
MITCHELL, Philip B.
MOHAMMAD, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
MOHAMMADI, Alireza
MOHAMMED, Kedir Endris
MOHAMMED, Shafiu
MOHANTY, Sanjay K.
MOKDAD, Ali H.
MOLLENKOPF, Sarah K.
MONASTA, Lorenzo
HERNANDEZ, Julio Montanez
MONTICO, Marcella
MORADI-LAKEH, Maziar
MORAGA, Paula
MORI, Rintaro
MOROZOFF, Chloe
MORRISON, Shane D.
MOSES, Mark
MOUNTJOY-VENNING, Cliff
MRUTS, Kalayu Birhane
MUELLER, Ulrich O.
MULLER, Kate
MURDOCH, Michele E.
MURTHY, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
MUSA, Kamarul Imran
NACHEGA, Jean B.
NAGEL, Gabriele
NAGHAVI, Mohsen
NAHEED, Aliya
NAIDOO, Kovin S.
NALDI, Luigi
NANGIA, Vinay
NATARAJAN, Gopalakrishnan
NEGASA, Dumessa Edessa
NEGOI, Ionut
NEGOI, Ruxandra Irina
NEWTON, Charles R.
NGUNJIRI, Josephine Wanjiku
Cuong Tat Nguyen
NGUYEN, Grant
NGUYEN, Minh
Quyen Le Nguyen
Trang Huyen Nguyen
NICHOLS, Emma
NINGRUM, Dina Nur Anggraini
NOLTE, Sandra
Vuong Minh Nong
NORRVING, Bo
NOUBIAP, Jean Jacques N.
O'DONNELL, Martin J.
OGBO, Felix Akpojene
OH, In-Hwan
OKORO, Anselm
OLADIMEJI, Olanrewaju
OLAGUNJU, Andrew Toyin
OLAGUNJU, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi
OLSEN, Helen E.
OLUSANYA, Bolajoko Olubukunola
OLUSANYA, Jacob Olusegun
ONG, Kanyin
OPIO, John Nelson
OREN, Eyal
ORTIZ, Alberto
OSGOOD-ZIMMERMAN, Aaron
OSMAN, Majdi
OWOLABI, Mayowa O.
MAHESH, P. A.
PACELLA, Rosana E.
PANA, Adrian
PANDA, Basant Kumar
PAPACHRISTOU, Christina
PARK, Eun-Kee
PARRY, Charles D.
PARSAEIAN, Mahboubeh
PATTEN, Scott B.
PATTON, George C.
PAULSON, Katherine
PEARCE, Neil
PEREIRA, David M.
PERICO, Norberto
PESUDOVS, Konrad
PETERSON, Carrie Beth
PETZOLD, Max
PHILLIPS, Michael Robert
PIGOTT, David M.
PILLAY, Julian David
PINHO, Christine
PLASS, Dietrich
PLETCHER, Martin A.
POPOVA, Svetlana
POULTON, Richie G.
POURMALEK, Farshad
PRABHAKARAN, Dorairaj
PRASAD, Narayan
PRASAD, Noela M.
PURCELL, Carrie
QORBANI, Mostafa
QUANSAH, Reginald
RABIEE, Rynaz H. S.
RADFAR, Amir
RAFAY, Anwar
RAHIMI, Kazem
RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Afarin
RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Vafa
RAHMAN, Mahfuzar
RAHMAN, Mohammad Hifz Ur
RAI, Rajesh Kumar
RAJSIC, Sasa
RAM, Usha
RANABHAT, Chhabi Lal
RANKIN, Zane
RAO, Paturi Vishnupriya
RAO, Puja C.
RAWAF, Salman
RAY, Sarah E.
REINER, Robert C.
REINIG, Nikolas
REITSMA, Marissa B.
REMUZZI, Giuseppe
RENZAHO, Andre M. N.
RESNIKOFF, Serge
REZAEI, Satar
RIBEIRO, Antonio L.
RONFANI, Luca
ROSHANDEL, Gholamreza
ROTH, Gregory A.
ROY, Ambuj
RUBAGOTTI, Enrico
RUHAGO, George Mugambage
SAADAT, Soheil
SADAT, Nafis
SAFDARIAN, Mahdi
SAFI, Sare
SAFIRI, Saeid
SAGAR, Rajesh
SAHATHEVAN, Ramesh
SALAMA, Joseph
SALOMON, Joshua A.
SALVI, Sundeep Santosh
SAMY, Abdallah M.
SANABRIA, Juan R.
SANTOMAURO, Damian
SANTOS, Itamar S. FMUSP-HC
SANTOS, Joao Vasco
MILICEVIC, Milena M. Santric
SARTORIUS, Benn
SATPATHY, Maheswar
SAWHNEY, Monika
SAXENA, Sonia
SCHMIDT, Maria Ines
SCHNEIDER, Ione J. C.
SCHOETTKER, Ben
SCHWEBEL, David C.
SCHWENDICKE, Falk
SEEDAT, Soraya
SEPANLOU, Sadaf G.
SERVAN-MORI, Edson E.
SETEGN, Tesfaye
SHACKELFORD, Katya Anne
SHAHEEN, Amira
SHAIKH, Masood Ali
SHAMSIPOUR, Mansour
ISLAM, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
SHARMA, Jayendra
SHARMA, Rajesh
SHE, Jun
SHI, Peilin
SHIELDS, Chloe
SHIGEMATSU, Mika
SHINOHARA, Yukito
SHIRI, Rahman
SHIRKOOHI, Reza
SHIRUDE, Shreya
SHISHANI, Kawkab
SHRIME, Mark G.
SIBAI, Abla Mehio
SIGFUSDOTTIR, Inga Dora
SILVA, Diego Augusto Santos
SILVA, Joao Pedro
SILVEIRA, Dayane Gabriele Alves
SINGH, Jasvinder A.
SINGH, Narinder Pal
SINHA, Dhirendra Narain
SKIADARESI, Eirini
SKIRBEKK, Vegard
SLEPAK, Erica Leigh
SLIGAR, Amber
SMITH, David L.
SMITH, Mari
SOBAIH, Badr H. A.
SOBNGWI, Eugene
SORENSEN, Reed J. D.
SOUSA, Tatiane Cristina Moraes
SPOSATO, Luciano A.
SREERAMAREDDY, Chandrashekhar T.
SRINIVASAN, Vinay
STANAWAY, Jeffrey D.
STATHOPOULOU, Vasiliki
STEEL, Nicholas
STEIN, Dan J.
STEIN, Murray B.
STEINER, Caitlyn
STEINER, Timothy J.
STEINKE, Sabine
STOKES, Mark Andrew
STOVNER, Lars Jacob
STRUB, Bryan
SUBART, Michelle
SUFIYAN, Muawiyyah Babale
ABDULKADER, Rizwan Suliankatchi
SUNGUYA, Bruno F.
SUR, Patrick J.
SWAMINATHAN, Soumya
SYKES, Bryan L.
SYLTE, Dillon O.
TABARES-SEISDEDOS, Rafael
TAFFERE, Getachew Redae
TAKALA, Jukka S.
TANDON, Nikhil
TAVAKKOLI, Mohammad
TAVEIRA, Nuno
TAYLOR, Hugh R.
TEHRANI-BANIHASHEMI, Arash
TEKELAB, Tesfalidet
SHIFA, Girma Temam
TERKAWI, Abdullah Sulieman
TESFAYE, Dawit Jember
TESSSEMA, Belay
THAMSUWAN, Ornwipa
THOMAS, Katie E.
THRIFT, Amanda G.
TIRUYE, Tenaw Yimer
TOBE-GAI, Ruoyan
TOLLANES, Mette C.
TONELLI, Marcello
TOPOR-MADRY, Roman
TORTAJADA, Miguel
TOUVIER, Mathilde
Bach Xuan Tran
TRIPATHI, Suryakant
TROEGER, Christopher
TRUELSEN, Thomas
TSOI, Derrick
TUEM, Kald Beshir
TUZCU, Emin Murat
TYROVOLAS, Stefanos
UKWAJA, Kingsley N.
UNDURRAGA, Eduardo A.
UNEKE, Chigozie Jesse
UPDIKE, Rachel
UTHMAN, Olalekan A.
UZOCHUKWU, Benjamin S. Chudi
BOVEN, Job F. M. van
VARUGHESE, Santosh
VASANKARI, Tommi
VENKATESH, S.
VENKETASUBRAMANIAN, Narayanaswamy
VIDAVALUR, Ramesh
VIOLANTE, Francesco S.
VLADIMIROV, Sergey K.
VLASSOV, Vasiliy Victorovich
VOLLSET, Stein Emil
WADILO, Fiseha
WAKAYO, Tolassa
WANG, Yuan-Pang FMUSP-HC
WEAVER, Marcia
WEICHENTHAL, Scott
WEIDERPASS, Elisabete
WEINTRAUB, Robert G.
WERDECKER, Andrea
WESTERMAN, Ronny
WHITEFORD, Harvey A.
WIJERATNE, Tissa
WIYSONGE, Charles Shey
WOLFE, Charles D. A.
WOODBROOK, Rachel
WOOLF, Anthony D.
WORKICHO, Abdulhalik
HANSON, Sarah Wulf
XAVIER, Denis
XU, Gelin
YADGIR, Simon
YAGHOUBI, Mohsen
YAKOB, Bereket
YAN, Lijing L.
YANO, Yuichiro
YE, Pengpeng
YIMAM, Hassen Hamid
YIP, Paul
YONEMOTO, Naohiro
YOON, Seok-Jun
YOTEBIENG, Marcel
YOUNIS, Mustafa Z.
ZAIDI, Zoubida
ZAKI, Maysaa El Sayed
ZEGEYE, Elias Asfaw
ZENEBE, Zerihun Menlkalew
ZHANG, Xueying
ZHOU, Maigeng
ZIPKIN, Ben
ZODPEY, Sanjay
ZUHLKE, Liesl Joanna
MURRAY, Christopher J. L.
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation LANCET, v.390, n.10100, p.1211-1259, 2017
dc.identifier.issn 0140-6736
dc.identifier.uri http://observatorio.fm.usp.br/handle/OPI/21820
dc.description.abstract Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57.6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40.8-75.9 million [7.2%, 6.0-8.3]), 45.1 million (29.0-62.8 million [5.6%, 4.0-7.2]), 36.3 million (25.3-50.9 million [4.5%, 3.8-5.3]), 34.7 million (23.0-49.6 million [4.3%, 3.5-5.2]), and 34.1 million (23.5-46.0 million [4.2%, 3.2-5.3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2.7% (95% UI 2.3-3.1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10.4% (95% UI 9.0-11.8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-todate information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response.
dc.description.sponsorship · Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
· National Institute on Aging
· National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
dc.relation.ispartof Lancet
dc.rights restrictedAccess
dc.subject.other personal health-care; climate-change; chronic pain; depression; disorders; mortality; trends; future
dc.title Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
dc.type article
dc.rights.holder Copyright ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
dc.contributor.groupauthor GBD 2016 Dis Injury Incidence Prev
dc.description.group LIM/20
dc.description.group LIM/23
dc.description.group LIM/51
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32154-2
dc.identifier.pmid 28919117
dc.type.category original article
dc.type.version publishedVersion
hcfmusp.author BENSENOR, Isabela M.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author GOULART, Alessandra Carvalho:HU:SCPACEX-62
hcfmusp.author LOTUFO, Paulo A.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author SANTOS, Itamar S.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author WANG, Yuan-Pang:HC:IPQ
hcfmusp.origem.id WOS:000410630000004
hcfmusp.origem.id 2-s2.0-85031738724
hcfmusp.publisher.city NEW YORK
hcfmusp.publisher.country USA
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dc.description.index MEDLINE
dc.identifier.eissn 1474-547X
hcfmusp.citation.scopus 919
hcfmusp.citation.wos 769
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