Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - LIM/25

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  • article 5 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Survivin: A Potential Marker of Resistance to Somatostatin Receptor Ligands
    (2023) HERKENHOFF, Clarissa G. Borba; TRARBACH, Ericka B.; BATISTA, Rafael Loch; SOARES, Ibere Cauduro; FRASSETTO, Fernando Pereira; NASCIMENTO, Felipe Barjud Pereira do; GRANDE, Isabella Pacetti Pajaro; SILVA, Paula P. B.; DUARTE, Felipe H. G.; BRONSTEIN, Marcello D.; JALLAD, Raquel S.
    Context Invasive and somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL)-resistant pituitary tumors represent a challenge in the clinical practice of endocrinologists. Efforts have been made to elucidate reliable makers for both. Survivin and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) are upregulated in several cancers and involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation. Objective We explored the role of these markers in somatotropinomas. Methods Immunostains for survivin and 4EBP1, and also for somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2), Ki-67, and cytokeratin 18, were analyzed in tissue microarrays containing 52 somatotropinoma samples. Tumor invasiveness was evaluated in all samples while drug resistance was evaluated in 34 patients who received SRL treatment. All these parameters were correlated with first-generation SRL (fg-SRL) responsiveness and tumor invasiveness. Results Low survivin expression (P = 0.04), hyperintense signal on T2 weighted image (T2WI) (P = 0.01), younger age (P = 0.01), sparsely granular adenomas (SGA) (P = 0.04), high postoperative growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (P = 0.049 and P < 0.001, respectively), and large postoperative tumor size (P = 0.02) were associated with resistance to fg-SRL. Low survivin and SSTR2 expression and high 4EBP1 expression were associated with SGA (P = 0.04, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively). Younger age (P = 0.03), large tumor pre- and postoperative (P = 0.04 and P = 0.006, respectively), low SSTR2 expression (P = 0.03), and high baseline GH and IGF-1 (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) were associated with tumor invasiveness. However, survivin, 4EBP1, Ki-67, and granulation patterns were not associated with tumor invasion. Conclusion This study suggests that low survivin expression is predictive of resistance to fg-SRL in somatotropinomas, but not of tumor invasiveness.
  • article
    The effects of cabergoline in the presurgical and recurrence periods of Cushing's disease patients
    (2021) PEREIRA, Ana Julia Garcia; ANDRADE, Natalia Xavier Sant' Anna; MUSOLINO, Nina Rosa Castro; CESCATO, Valter Angelo Sperling; SILVA, Gilberto Ochman; FRAGOSO, Maria Candida; BRONSTEIN, Marcello D.; MACHADO, Marcio C.
    Background: The dopaminergic agonist cabergoline (CAB) has been used in the pharmacological treatment of Cushing's disease (CD). The effect is attributed to the frequent expression of the dopamine receptor subtype 2 in corticotroph tumors. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated the normalization of 24-h urinary cortisol (24-h UC) in approximately 30-40% of patients over the long term, mainly after surgical failure. Objective: To evaluate the effect of CAB as monotherapy in the early preoperative period and on the recurrence of CD. Methods: A single-center retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. Twenty-one patients with confirmed CD were included. The median age was 32 years (13-70), 86% were female, 10 had microadenomas, and 11 had macroadenomas. They were diagnosed from 1986 to 2016 and used CAB as monotherapy either in the preoperative period (n=7, CABi) or upon recurrence before any other treatment (n=14, CABr). A 'complete response' was considered 24-h UC normalization and a 'partial response' was considered a 24-h UC reduction of >50%. UC was obtained at the last follow-up evaluation. The normalization of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) after CAB use was evaluated in most patients, as well as the tumor diameter by pituitary MRI, before and after CAB treatment. Results: Complete response was achieved in 29% (6/21) of subjects after 14.9 +/- 16.4 months of treatment, with an average dose of 2.2 +/- 1.0 mg/week. Partial response occurred in 9.5% (2/21). LNSC normalized in 35% (6/17) of patients, and no variation in tumor diameter before and after CAB use was observed (n=13): 6.8 +/- 6.8 vs. 7.2 +/- 7.1 mm. There was no normalization of 24-h-UC in the CABi subgroup at the end of the treatment, whereas 43% (6/14) of patients in the CABr subgroup reached complete response. The CABi subgroup was treated for 4.7 +/- 1.9 months, and the CABr subgroup was treated for 20.1 +/- 18.1 months. Both groups were administered similar doses of CAB (CABi 2.1 +/- 0.9 and CABr 2.3 +/- 1.1 mg/week). Interestingly, the difference between the subgroups' complete response was evident early on in the three months of treatment: no patients in the CABi subgroup vs. 6/10 (60%) in the CABr subgroup (p=0.035), despite a lower dose in the CABr subgroup (1.1 vs. 1.6; p=0.008). The normalization of LNSC occurred in 20% of the CABi subgroup and in 42% of the CABr subgroup. Conclusions: The normalization of 24-h UC and LNSC occurred in approximately 30% of all patients, mainly in those who used CAB for the recurrence of CD. Despite the small number of subjects in the CABi subgroup, the absence of hormone control in this subgroup discourages the use of this medication as primary therapy or as a preoperative treatment option. PubMed Disclaimer
  • article 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Prevalence of DICER1 variants in large multinodular goiter: thyroid function, clinical and imaging characteristics
    (2024) MIRANDA, Lara Judith Cabral; DANILOVIC, Debora L. S.; VANDERLEI, Felipe Augusto Brasileiro; TAVARES, Marcos Roberto; NETO, Nicolau Lima; CAMARGO, Rosalinda Yossie Asato de; MARUI, Suemi
    Objective: Mutations in DICER1 are found in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and in multinodular goiter (MNG) at a younger age with other tumors, which characterizes DICER1 syndrome. DICER1 is one driver to DTC; however, it is also found in benign nodules. We speculated that patients with mutations in DICER1 may present long-lasting MNG. Our aim was to investigate the frequency of DICER1 variants in patients with MNG. Subjects and methods: Patients who submitted to total thyroidectomy due to large MNG with symptoms were evaluated. DICER1 hotspots were sequenced from thyroid nodule samples. To confirm somatic mutation, DNA from peripheral blood was also analyzed. Results: Among 715 patients, 154 were evaluated with 56.2 +/- 12.3 years old (28-79) and the thyroid volume was 115.7 +/- 108 mL (16.2-730). We found 11% with six DICER1 variations in a homo or heterozygous state. Only rs12018992 was a somatic DICER1 variant. All remaining variants were synonymous and likely benign, according to the ClinVar database. The rs12018992 was previously described in an adolescent with DTC, measuring 13 mm. There were no significant differences according to gender, familial history of goiter, age, thyroid volume, TSH and TI -RADS classification between DICER1 carriers. Free T4 were lower in patients with DICER1 polymorphisms (13.77 +/- 1.8 vs. 15.44 +/- 2.4 pmol/L, p = 0.008), regardless of TSH levels. Conclusions: We conclude that germline DICER1 variants can be found in 11% of large goiters but no second -hit somatic mutation was found. DICER1 is one driver to thyroid lesion and a second -hit event seems unnecessary in the MNG development.
  • article 2 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Burden of Rare Copy Number Variants in Microcephaly: A Brazilian Cohort of 185 Microcephalic Patients and Review of the Literature
    (2024) TOLEZANO, Giovanna Cantini; BASTOS, Giovanna Civitate; COSTA, Silvia Souza da; FREIRE, Bruna Lucheze; HOMMA, Thais Kataoka; HONJO, Rachel Sayuri; YAMAMOTO, Guilherme Lopes; PASSOS-BUENO, Maria Rita; KOIFFMANN, Celia Priszkulnik; KIM, Chong Ae; VIANNA-MORGANTE, Angela Maria; JORGE, Alexander Augusto de Lima; BERTOLA, Debora Romeo; ROSENBERG, Carla; KREPISCHI, Ana Cristina Victorino
    Microcephaly presents heterogeneous genetic etiology linked to several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Copy number variants (CNVs) are a causal mechanism of microcephaly whose investigation is a crucial step for unraveling its molecular basis. Our purpose was to investigate the burden of rare CNVs in microcephalic individuals and to review genes and CNV syndromes associated with microcephaly. We performed chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in 185 Brazilian patients with microcephaly and evaluated microcephalic patients carrying < 200 kb CNVs documented in the DECIPHER database. Additionally, we reviewed known genes and CNV syndromes causally linked to microcephaly through the PubMed, OMIM, DECIPHER, and ClinGen databases. Rare clinically relevant CNVs were detected in 39 out of the 185 Brazilian patients investigated by CMA (21%). In 31 among the 60 DECIPHER patients carrying < 200 kb CNVs, at least one known microcephaly gene was observed. Overall, four gene sets implicated in microcephaly were disclosed: known microcephaly genes; genes with supporting evidence of association with microcephaly; known macrocephaly genes; and novel candidates, including OTUD7A, BBC3, CNTN6, and NAA15. In the review, we compiled 957 known microcephaly genes and 58 genomic CNV loci, comprising 13 duplications and 50 deletions, which have already been associated with clinical findings including microcephaly. We reviewed genes and CNV syndromes previously associated with microcephaly, reinforced the high CMA diagnostic yield for this condition, pinpointed novel candidate loci linked to microcephaly deserving further evaluation, and provided a useful resource for future research on the field of neurodevelopment.
  • article 3 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Prevalence of Deleterious Variants in MC3R in Patients With Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty
    (2023) DUCKETT, Katie; WILLIAMSON, Alice; KINCAID, John W. R.; RAINBOW, Kara; CORBIN, Laura J.; MARTIN, Hilary C.; EBERHARDT, Ruth Y.; HUANG, Qin Qin; HURLES, Matthew E.; HE, Wen; BRAUNER, Raja; DELANEY, Angela; DUNKEL, Leo; GRINSPON, Romina P.; HALL, Janet E.; HIRSCHHORN, Joel N.; HOWARD, Sasha R.; LATRONICO, Ana C.; JORGE, Alexander A. L.; MCELREAVEY, Ken; MERICQ, Veronica; MERINO, Paulina M.; PALMERT, Mark R.; PLUMMER, Lacey; REY, Rodolfo A.; REZENDE, Raissa C.; SEMINARA, Stephanie B.; SALNIKOV, Kathryn; BANERJEE, Indraneel; LAM, Brian Y. H.; PERRY, John R. B.; TIMPSON, Nicholas J.; CLAYTON, Peter; CHAN, Yee-Ming; ONG, Ken K.; O'RAHILLY, Stephen
    Context The melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) has recently emerged as a critical regulator of pubertal timing, linear growth, and the acquisition of lean mass in humans and mice. In population-based studies, heterozygous carriers of deleterious variants in MC3R report a later onset of puberty than noncarriers. However, the frequency of such variants in patients who present with clinical disorders of pubertal development is currently unknown. Objective This work aimed to determine whether deleterious MC3R variants are more frequently found in patients clinically presenting with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) or normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). Methods We examined the sequence of MC3R in 362 adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of CDGP and 657 patients with nIHH, experimentally characterized the signaling properties of all nonsynonymous variants found and compared their frequency to that in 5774 controls from a population-based cohort. Additionally, we established the relative frequency of predicted deleterious variants in individuals with self-reported delayed vs normally timed menarche/voice-breaking in the UK Biobank cohort. Results MC3R loss-of-function variants were infrequent but overrepresented in patients with CDGP (8/362 [2.2%]; OR = 4.17; P = .001). There was no strong evidence of overrepresentation in patients with nIHH (4/657 [0.6%]; OR = 1.15; P = .779). In 246 328 women from the UK Biobank, predicted deleterious variants were more frequently found in those self-reporting delayed (aged & GE;16 years) vs normal age at menarche (OR = 1.66; P = 3.90E-07). Conclusion We have found evidence that functionally damaging variants in MC3R are overrepresented in individuals with CDGP but are not a common cause of this phenotype.
  • article 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Exome Sequencing Identifies Multiple Genetic Diagnoses in Children with Syndromic Growth Disorders
    (2024) REZENDE, Raissa Carneiro; ANDRADE, Nathalia Liberatoscioli Menezes de; DANTAS, Naiara Castelo Branco; CELLIN, Laurana de Polli; KREPISCHI, Ana Cristina Victorino; LERARIO, Antonio Marcondes; JORGE, Alexander Augusto de Lima
    Objective To evaluate the presence of multiple genetic diagnoses in syndromic growth disorders. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional study to evaluate 115 patients with syndromic tall (n = 24) or short stature (n = 91) of unknown cause from a tertiary referral center for growth disorders. Exome sequencing was performed to assess germline single nucleotide, InDel, and copy number variants. All variants were classified according to ACMG/AMP guidelines. The main outcome measured was the frequency of multiple genetic diagnoses in a cohort of children with syndromic growth disorders. Results The total diagnostic yield of the cohort was 54.8% (63/115). Six patients had multiple genetic diagnoses (tall stature group = 2; short stature group = 4). The proportion of multiple diagnoses within total cases was 5.2% (6/ 115), and within solved cases was 9.5% (6/63). No characteristics were significantly more frequent when compared with patients with single or multiple genetic findings. Among patients with multiple diagnoses, 3 had syndromes with overlapping clinical features, and the others had syndromes with distinct phenotypes. Conclusion Recognition of multiple genetic diagnoses as a possibility in complex cases of syndromic growth disorders opens a new perspective on treatment and genetic counseling for affected patients, defying the medical common sense of trying to fit all findings into one diagnosis. (J Pediatr 2024;265:113841)
  • article 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Case report: Insulinomatosis: description of four sporadic cases and review of the literature
    (2024) JR, Delmar Muniz Lourenco; CORREA-GIANNELLA, Maria Lucia; SIQUEIRA, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; NERY, Marcia; RIBEIRO, Flavio Galvao; QUEDAS, Elizangela Pereira de Souza; ROCHA, Manoel de Souza; NASCIMENTO, Ramon Marcelino do; PEREIRA, Maria Adelaide Albergaria
    The best-known etiologies of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are insulinoma, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemic syndrome, autoimmune processes, and factitious hypoglycemia. In 2009, a disease not associated with classic genetic syndromes and characterized by the presence of multiple pancreatic lesions was described and named insulinomatosis. We present the clinical and pathologic features of four patients with the diagnosis of insulinomatosis, aggregated new clinical data, reviewed extensively the literature, and illustrated the nature and evolution of this recently recognized disease. One of our patients had isolated (without fasting hypoglycemia) postprandial hypoglycemia, an occurrence not previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, we reported the second case presenting malignant disease. All of them had persistent/recurrent hypoglycemia after the first surgery even with pathology confirming the presence of a positive insulin neuroendocrine tumor. In the literature review, 27 sporadic insulinomatosis cases were compiled. All of them had episodes of fasting hypoglycemia except one of our patients. Only two patients had malignant disease, and one of them was from our series. The suspicion of insulinomatosis can be raised before surgery in patients without genetic syndromes, with multiple tumors in the topographic investigation and in those who had persistent or recurrent hypoglycemia after surgical removal of one or more tumors. The definitive diagnosis is established by histology and immunohistochemistry and requires examination of the ""macroscopically normal pancreas."" Our case series reinforces the marked predominance in women, the high frequency of recurrent hypoglycemia, and consequently, a definitive poor response to the usual surgical treatment.
  • article 2 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Variants in 46,XY DSD-Related Genes in Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Small for Gestational Age Children with Hypospadias
    (2022) BRAGA, B. L.; GOMES, N. L.; NISHI, M. Y.; FREIRE, B. L.; BATISTA, R. L.; FARIA JUNIOR, J. A. D.; FUNARI, M. F. A.; BENEDETTI, A. F. F.; NARCIZO, A. De Moraes; CARDOSO, L. Cavalca; LERARIO, A. M.; GUERRA-JUNIOR, G.; COSTA, E. M. F.; DOMENICE, S.; JORGE, A. A. L.; MENDONCA, B. B.
    Hypospadias is a common congenital disorder of male genital formation. Children born small for gestational age (SGA) present a high frequency of hypospadias of undetermined etiology. No previous study investigated the molecular etiology of hypospadias in boys born SGA using massively parallel sequencing. Our objective is to report the genetic findings of a cohort of patients born SGA with medium or proximal hypospadias. We identified 46 individuals with this phenotype from a large cohort of 46,XY DSD patients, including 5 individuals with syndromic features. DNA samples from subjects were studied by either whole exome sequencing or target gene panel approach. Three of the syndromic patients have 5 main clinical features of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and were first studied by MLPA. Among the syndromic patients, loss of DNA methylation at the imprinting control region H19/IGF2 was identified in 2 individuals with SRS clinical diagnosis. Two novel pathogenic variants in compound heterozygous state were identified in the CUL7 gene establishing the diagnosis of 3M syndrome in one patient, and a novel homozygous variant in TRIM37 was identified in another boy with Mulibrey nanism phenotype. Among the non-syndromic subjects, 7 rare heterozygous variants were identified in 6 DSD-related genes. However, none of the variants found can explain the phenotype by themselves. In conclusion, a genetic defect that clarifies the etiology of hypospadias was not found in most of the non-syndromic SGA children, supporting the hypothesis that multifactorial causes, new genes, and/or unidentified epigenetic defects may have an influence in this condition.
  • article 27 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    International Consensus Guideline on Small for Gestational Age: Etiology and Management From Infancy to Early Adulthood
    (2023) HOKKEN-KOELEGA, Anita C. S.; STEEN, Manouk van der; BOGUSZEWSKI, Margaret C. S.; CIANFARANI, Stefano; DAHLGREN, Jovanna; HORIKAWA, Reiko; MERICQ, Veronica; RAPAPORT, Robert; ALHERBISH, Abdullah; BRASLAVSKY, Debora; CHARMANDARI, Evangelia; CHERNAUSEK, Steven D.; CUTFIELD, Wayne S.; DAUBER, Andrew; DEEB, Asma; GOEDEGEBUURE, Wesley J.; HOFMAN, Paul L.; ISGANATIS, Elvira; JORGE, Alexander A.; KANAKA-GANTENBEIN, Christina; KASHIMADA, Kenichi; KHADILKAR, Vaman; LUO, Xiao-Ping; MATHAI, Sarah; NAKANO, Yuya; YAU, Mabel
    This International Consensus Guideline was developed by experts in the field of small for gestational age (SGA) of 10 pediatric endocrine societies worldwide. A consensus meeting was held and 1300 articles formed the basis for discussions. All experts voted about the strengths of the recommendations. The guideline gives new and clinically relevant insights into the etiology of short stature after SGA birth, including novel knowledge about (epi)genetic causes. Further, it presents long-term consequences of SGA birth and also reviews new treatment options, including treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in addition to growth hormone (GH) treatment, as well as the metabolic and cardiovascular health of young adults born SGA after cessation of childhood GH treatment in comparison with appropriate control groups. To diagnose SGA, accurate anthropometry and use of national growth charts are recommended. Follow-up in early life is warranted and neurodevelopment evaluation in those at risk. Excessive postnatal weight gain should be avoided, as this is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic health profile in adulthood. Children born SGA with persistent short stature < -2.5 SDS at age 2 years or < -2 SDS at 3 to 4 years of age, should be referred for diagnostic workup. In case of dysmorphic features, major malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and/or signs of skeletal dysplasia, genetic testing should be considered. Treatment with 0.033 to 0.067 mg GH/kg/day is recommended in case of persistent short stature at age of 3 to 4 years. Adding GnRHa treatment could be considered when short adult height is expected at pubertal onset. All young adults born SGA require counseling to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
  • article 1 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Identification of a second genetic alteration in patients with SHOX deficiency individuals: a potential explanation for phenotype variability
    (2023) DANTAS, Naiara C. B.; FUNARI, Mariana F. A.; LERARIO, Antonio M.; ANDRADE, Nathalia L. M.; REZENDE, Raissa C.; CELLIN, Laurana P.; ALVES, Cresio; CRISOSTOMO, Lindiane G.; ARNHOLD, Ivo J. P.; MENDONCA, Berenice; SCALCO, Renata C.; JORGE, Alexander A. L.
    Objective Our study aimed to assess the impact of genetic modifiers on the significant variation in phenotype that is observed in individuals with SHOX deficiency, which is the most prevalent monogenic cause of short stature.Design and methods We performed a genetic analysis in 98 individuals from 48 families with SHOX deficiency with a target panel designed to capture the entire SHOX genomic region and 114 other genes that modulate growth and/or SHOX action. We prioritized rare potentially deleterious variants.Results We did not identify potential deleterious variants in the promoter or intronic regions of the SHOX genomic locus. In contrast, we found eight heterozygous variants in 11 individuals from nine families in genes with a potential role as genetic modifiers. In addition to a previously described likely pathogenic (LP) variant in CYP26C1 observed in two families, we identified LP variants in PTHLH and ACAN, and variants of uncertain significance in NPR2, RUNX2, and TP53 in more affected individuals from families with SHOX deficiency. Families with a SHOX alteration restricted to the regulatory region had a higher prevalence of a second likely pathogenic variant (27%) than families with an alteration compromising the SHOX coding region (2.9%, P = .04).Conclusion In conclusion, variants in genes related to the growth plate have a potential role as genetic modifiers of the phenotype in individuals with SHOX deficiency. In individuals with SHOX alterations restricted to the regulatory region, a second alteration could be critical to determine the penetrance and expression of the phenotype.
  • article 2 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    The Effect of Gene Editing by CRISPR-Cas9 of miR-21 and the Indirect Target MMP9 in Metastatic Prostate Cancer
    (2023) CAMARGO, Juliana A.; VIANA, Nayara I.; PIMENTA, Ruan; GUIMARAES, Vanessa R.; SANTOS, Gabriel A. dos; CANDIDO, Patricia; GHAZARIAN, Vitoria; ROMAO, Poliana; SILVA, Iran A.; BIRBRAIR, Alexander; SROUGI, Miguel; NAHAS, William C.; LEITE, Katia R.; TRARBACH, Ericka B.; REIS, Sabrina T.
    Prostate cancer (PCa) has a high prevalence and represents an important health problem, with an increased risk of metastasis. With the advance of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, new possibilities have been created for investigating PCa. The technique is effective in knockout oncogenes, reducing tumor resistance. MMP9 and miR-21 target genes are associated with PCa progression; therefore, we evaluated the MMP-9 and miR-21 targets in PCa using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) of MMP9 and miR-21 sequences were inserted into a PX-330 plasmid, and transfected in DU145 and PC-3 PCa cell lines. MMP9 and RECK expression was assessed by qPCR, WB, and IF. The miR-21 targets, integrins, BAX and mTOR, were evaluated by qPCR. Flow cytometry was performed with Annexin5, 7-AAD and Ki67 markers. Invasion assays were performed with Matrigel. The miR-21 CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells upregulated RECK, MARCKS, BTG2, and PDCD4. CDH1, ITGB3 and ITGB1 were increased in MMP9 and miR-21 CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells. Increased BAX and decreased mTOR were observed in MMP9 and miR-21 CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells. Reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and low invasion in MMP9 and miR-21 edited cells was observed, compared to Scramble. CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells of miR-21 and MMP9 attenuate cell proliferation, invasion and stimulate apoptosis, impeding PCa evolution.
  • article 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Homozygous CDH2 variant may be associated with hypopituitarism without neurological disorders
    (2023) FERREIRA, Nathalia G. B. P.; MADEIRA, Joao L. O.; GERGICS, Peter; KERTSZ, Renata; MARQUES, Juliana M.; TRIGUEIRO, Nicholas S. S.; BENEDETTI, Anna Flavia Figueredo; V, Bruna Azevedo; V, Bianca H. Fernandes; BISSEGATTO, Debora D.; BISCOTTO, Isabela P.; FANG, Qing; MA, Qianyi; OZEL, Asye B.; LI, Jun; CAMPER, Sally A.; JORGE, Alexander A. L.; MENDONCA, Berenice B.; ARNHOLD, Ivo J. P.; CARVALHO, Luciani R.
    Context: Congenital hypopituitarism is a genetically heterogeneous condition. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a promising approach for molecular diagnosis of patients with this condition. Objectives: The aim of this study is to conduct WES in a patient with congenital hypopituitarism born to consanguineous parents, CDH2 screening in a cohort of patients with congenital hypopituitarism, and functional testing of a no vel CDH2 variant. Design: Genomic DNA from a proband and her consanguineous parents was analyzed by WES. Copy number variants were evaluated. The genetic variants were filtered for population frequency (ExAC, 1000 genomes, gnomAD, and ABraOM), in silico prediction of pathogenicity, and gene expression in the pituitary and/or hypothalamus. Genomic DNA from 145 patients was screened for CDH2 by Sanger sequencing. Results: One female patient with deficiencies in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone and ectopic posterior pituitary gland contained a rare homozygous c.865G>A (p.Val289Ile) variant in CDH2. To determine whether the p.Val289Ile variant in CDH2 affects cell adhesion properties, we stably transfected L1 fibroblast lines, labeled the cells with lipophilic dyes, and quantified aggregation. Large aggregates formed in cells expressing wildtype CDH2, but aggregation was impaired in cells transfected with variant CDH2 or non-transfected. Conclusion: A homozygous CDH2 allelic variant was found in one hypopituitarism patient, and the variant impaired cell aggregation function in vitro. No disease-causing variants were found in 145 other patients screened for CDH2 variants. Thus, CDH2 is a candidate gene for hypopituitarism that needs to be tested in different populations.
  • article 8 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Rare variants in the MECP2 gene in girls with central precocious puberty: a translational cohort study
    (2023) CANTON, Ana P. M.; TINANO, Flavia R.; GUASTI, Leonardo; MONTENEGRO, Luciana R.; RYAN, Fiona; SHEARS, Deborah; MELO, Maria Edna de; GOMES, Larissa G.; PIANA, Mariana P.; BRAUNER, Raja; ESPINO-AGUILAR, Rafael; ESCRIBANO-MUNOZ, Arancha; PAGANONI, Alyssa; READ, Jordan E.; KORBONITS, Marta; SERAPHIM, Carlos E.; COSTA, Silvia S.; KREPISCHI, Ana Cristina; JORGE, Alexander A. L.; DAVID, Alessia; KAISINGER, Lena R.; ONG, Ken K.; PERRY, John R. B.; ABREU, Ana Paula; KAISER, Ursula B.; ARGENTE, Jesus; MENDONCA, Berenice B.; BRITO, Vinicius N.; HOWARD, Sasha R.; LATRONICO, Ana Claudia
    Background Identification of genetic causes of central precocious puberty have revealed epigenetic mechanisms as regulators of human pubertal timing. MECP2, an X-linked gene, encodes a chromatin-associated protein with a role in gene transcription. MECP2 loss-of-function mutations usually cause Rett syndrome, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Early pubertal development has been shown in several patients with Rett syndrome. The aim of this study was to explore whether MECP2 variants are associated with an idiopathic central precocious puberty phenotype. Methods In this translational cohort study, participants were recruited from seven tertiary centres from five countries (Brazil, Spain, France, the USA, and the UK). Patients with idiopathic central precocious puberty were investigated for rare potentially damaging variants in the MECP2 gene, to assess whether MECP2 might contribute to the cause of central precocious puberty. Inclusion criteria were the development of progressive pubertal signs (Tanner stage 2) before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and basal or GnRH-stimulated LH pubertal concentrations. Exclusion criteria were the diagnosis of peripheral precocious puberty and the presence of any recognised cause of central precocious puberty (CNS lesions, known monogenic causes, genetic syndromes, or early exposure to sex steroids). All patients included were followed up at the outpatient clinics of participating academic centres. We used high-throughput sequencing in 133 patients and Sanger sequencing of MECP2 in an additional 271 patients. Hypothalamic expression of Mecp2 and colocalisation with GnRH neurons were determined in mice to show expression of Mecp2 in key nuclei related to pubertal timing regulation. Findings Between Jun 15, 2020, and Jun 15, 2022, 404 patients with idiopathic central precocious puberty (383 [95%] girls and 21 [5%] boys; 261 [65%] sporadic cases and 143 [35%] familial cases from 134 unrelated families) were enrolled and assessed. We identified three rare heterozygous likely damaging coding variants in MECP2 in five girls: a de novo missense variant (Arg97Cys) in two monozygotic twin sisters with central precocious puberty and microcephaly; a de novo missense variant (Ser176Arg) in one girl with sporadic central precocious puberty, obesity, and autism; and an insertion (Ala6_Ala8dup) in two unrelated girls with sporadic central precocious puberty. Additionally, we identified one rare heterozygous 3 & PRIME;UTR MECP2 insertion (36_37insT) in two unrelated girls with sporadic central precocious puberty. None of them manifested Rett syndrome. Mecp2 protein colocalised with GnRH expression in hypothalamic nuclei responsible for GnRH regulation in mice. Interpretation We identified rare MECP2 variants in girls with central precocious puberty, with or without mild neurodevelopmental abnormalities. MECP2 might have a role in the hypothalamic control of human pubertal timing, adding to the evidence of involvement of epigenetic and genetic mechanisms in this crucial biological process.
  • article 2 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Screening, diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy
    (2022) MAGANHA, C. A.; MATTAR, R.; JúNIOR, C. O. Mesa; MARUI, S.; SOLHA, S. T. G.; TEIXEIRA, P. De Fátima Dos Santos; ZACONETA, A. C. M.; SOUZA, R. T.
  • article 4 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    How to manage intolerance to dopamine agonist in patients with prolactinoma
    (2023) STUMPF, Matheo Augusto Morandi; PINHEIRO, Felipe Moura Maia; SILVA, Gilberto Ochman; CESCATO, Valter Angelo Sperling; MUSOLINO, Nina Rosa Castro; CUNHA-NETO, Malebranche Berardo Carneiro; GLEZER, Andrea
    PurposeDopamine agonists (DA) are the gold-standard for prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia treatment. Intolerance to DA leading to drug drop out occurs in 3 to 12% of cases. We provide here a review of published data about DA intolerance and present a case report concerning the use of intravaginal cabergoline.MethodsWe review the literature on the definition, the pathogenesis, frequency and management of DA intolerance. In addition, the review provides strategies to enhance tolerability and avoid precocious clinical treatment withdrawal.ResultsCabergoline is often cited as the most tolerable DA and its side effects tend to ameliorate within days to weeks. Restarting the same drug at a lower dose or switching to another DA can be used in cases of intolerance. The vaginal route can be tried specifically if there are gastrointestinal side effects in the oral administration. Symptomatic treatment could be attempted, although mainly based on a strategy used in other diseases.ConclusionsDue to limited data, no guidelines have been developed for the management of intolerance in DA treatment. The most frequent management is to perform transsphenoidal surgery. Nevertheless, this manuscript provides data derived from published literature and expert opinion, suggesting new approaches to this clinical issue.
  • article 3 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    PRL-R Variants Are Not Only Associated With Prolactinomas But Also With Dopamine Agonist Resistance
    (2023) MOREIRA, Andrea Ramos de Castro; TRARBACH, Ericka; BUENO, Cristina Bellotti Formiga; MONTEIRO, Anna Louise Stellfeld; GRANDE, Isabella Pacetti Pajaro; PADULA, Mario; MACIEL, Gustavo Arantes Rosa; GLEZER, Andrea
    Context Knockout prolactin receptor gene (PRL-R) mice are animal models for prolactinomas and PRL acts via autocrine/paracrine inhibiting lactotroph proliferation. Recently, variants of the PRL-R were identified in prolactinoma patients and their frequency was higher compared to individuals from the genomic database. Objective We analyzed PRL-R variants frequency in an extensive cohort of prolactinoma patients and evaluated their association with clinical, laboratorial, and imaging characteristics and hormonal response to cabergoline. Design Observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study. Setting This study took place at the Neuroendocrinology Unit of Clinics Hospital, Medical School of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, a tertiary referral center. Patients and Methods Study participants included adults with sporadic prolactinomas treated with cabergoline, where response to therapy was defined by prolactin normalization with up to 3 mg/week doses. DNA was extracted from blood samples and the PRL-R was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction techniques and automatic sequencing. The association of PRL-R variants with serum prolactin levels, maximal tumor diameter, tumor parasellar invasiveness, and response to cabergoline was analyzed. Results We found 6 PRL-R variants: p.Ile100(76)Val, p.Ile170(146)Leu, p.Glu400(376)Gln/p.Asn516(492)Ile, p.Glu470Asp e p.Ala591Pro; the last 2 are newly described in prolactinomas' patients. The variants p.Glu400(376)Gln/p.Asn516(492)Ile and p.Ala591Pro were more frequent amongst patients compared to genomic databases, and the p.Asn516(492)Ile showed pathogenic potential using in silico analysis as previously described. PRL-R variants were associated with male sex (P = 0.015), higher serum PRL levels (P = 0.007), larger tumors (P = 0.001), and cabergoline resistance (P < 0.001). Conclusions The prolactin/prolactin receptor system seems to be related to prolactinoma tumorigenesis and cabergoline resistance. Additional studies are needed to better understand the PRL-R variants' role and their potential as therapeutic targets.
  • article 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Ultrasound in cervical traumatic neuromas after neck dissection in thyroid carcinoma patients: descriptive analysis and diagnostic accuracy
    (2023) MARCOS, Vinicius Neves; DANILOVIC, Debora Lucia Seguro; PEREIRA, Fernando Linhares; TSUNEMI, Miriam Harumi; KULCSAR, Marco Aurelio Vamondes; HOFF, Ana Oliveira; DOMINGUES, Regina Barros; CHAMMAS, Maria Cristina; FREITAS, Ricardo Miguel Costa de
    Objective: Cervical traumatic neuromas (CTNs) may appear after lateral neck dissection for metastatic thyroid carcinoma. If they are misdiagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in follow-up neck ultrasound (US), unnecessary and uncomfortable fine-needle aspiration biopsy are indicated. The present study aimed to describe US features of CTNs and to assess the US performance in distinguishing CTNs from abnormal LNs. Subjects and methods: Retrospective evaluation of neck US images of 206 consecutive patients who had lateral neck dissection as a part of thyroid cancer treatment to assess CTN's US features. Diagnostic accuracy study to evaluate US performance in distinguishing CTNs from abnormal LNs was performed. Results: Eight-six lateral neck nodules were selected for analysis: 38 CTNs and 48 abnormal LNs. CTNs with diagnostic cytology were predominantly hypoechogenic (100% vs. 45%; P = 0.008) and had shorter diameters than inconclusive cytology CTNs: short axis (0.39 cm vs. 0.50 cm; P = 0.03) and long axis (1.64 cm vs. 2.35 cm; P = 0.021). The US features with the best accuracy to distinguish CTNs from abnormal LNs were continuity with a nervous structure, hypoechogenic internal lines, short/long axis ratio = 0.42, absent Doppler vascularization, fusiform morphology, and short axis = 0.48 cm. Conclusion: US is a very useful method for assessing CTNs, with good performance in distinguishing CTNs from abnormal LNs.
  • article 2 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    A thermosensitive PCNA allele underlies an ataxia- telangiectasia-like disorder
    (2023) MAGRINO, Joseph; MUNFORD, Veridiana; MARTINS, Davi Jardim; HOMMA, Thais K.; PAGE, Brendan; GAUBITZ, Christl; FREIRE, Bruna L.; LERARIO, Antonio M.; VILAR, Juliana Brandstetter; AMORIN, Antonio; LEAO, Emilia K. E.; KOK, Fernand; MENCK, Carlos F. M.; JORGE, Alexander A. L.; KELCH, Brian A.
    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a sliding clamp protein that coordinates DNA replication with various DNA maintenance events that are critical for human health. Recently, a hypomorphic homozygous serine to isoleucine (S228I) substitu-tion in PCNA was described to underlie a rare DNA repair dis-order known as PCNA-associated DNA repair disorder (PARD). PARD symptoms range from UV sensitivity, neurodegeneration, telangiectasia, and premature aging. We, and others, previously showed that the S228I variant changes the protein-binding pocket of PCNA to a conformation that impairs interactions with specific partners. Here, we report a second PCNA substitution (C148S) that also causes PARD. Unlike PCNA-S228I, PCNA-C148S has WT-like structure and affinity toward partners. In contrast, both disease-associated variants possess a thermostability defect. Furthermore, patient-derived cells homozygous for the C148S allele exhibit low levels of chromatin-bound PCNA and display temperature-dependent phenotypes. The stability defect of both PARD variants indicates that PCNA levels are likely an important driver of PARD disease. These results significantly advance our understanding of PARD and will likely stimulate additional work focused on clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this severe disease.
  • article 3 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    SIN3A defects associated with syndromic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: an overlap with Witteveen-Kolk syndrome
    (2023) SCHNOLL, Caroline; KREPISCHI, Ana Cristina Victorino; RENCK, Alessandra Covallero; AMATO, Lorena Guimaraes Lima; KULIKOWSKI, Leslie Domenici; DANTAS, Naiara Castelo Branco; COSTA, Elaine Maria Frade; MENDONCA, Berenice Bilharinho; LATRONICO, Ana Claudia; JORGE, Alexander Augusto de Lima; SILVEIRA, Leticia Ferreira Gontijo
    Introduction: Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare condition caused by GnRH deficiency. More than 40 genes have been associated with the pathogenesis of CHH, but most cases still remain without a molecular diagnosis. Mutations involving the same gene (e.g. FGFR1, PROK2/PROKR2, CHD7) were found to cause normosmic CHH and Kallmann syndrome, with and without associated phenotypes, illustrating the coexistence of CHH with signs of other complex syndromes. The Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS), caused by defects of the SIN3A gene, is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, delayed cognitive and motor development. Although micropenis and cryptorchidism have been reported in this syndrome, WITKOS has not been formally associated with CHH so far. Patients and Methods: A man with Kallmann syndrome (KS) associated with mild syndromic features (S1) and a boy with global developmental delay, syndromic short stature, micropenis and cryptorchidism (S2), in whom common genetic defects associated with CHH and short stature had been previously excluded, were studied by either chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) or whole exome sequencing (WES). Results: Rare SIN3A pathogenic variants were identified in these two unrelated patients with CHH phenotypic features. A 550 kb deletion at 15q24.1, including the whole SIN3A gene, was identified in S1, and a SIN3A nonsense rare variant (p.Arg471*) was detected in S2. Conclusion: These findings lead us to propose a link between SIN3A defects and CHH, especially in syndromic cases, based on these two patients with overlapping phenotypes of WITKOS and CHH.
  • article 5 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Clinical and Genetic Characterization of Familial Central Precocious Puberty
    (2023) TINANO, Flavia Rezende; CANTON, Ana Pinheiro Machado; MONTENEGRO, Luciana R.; LEAL, Andrea de Castro; FARIA, Aline G.; SERAPHIM, Carlos E.; BRAUNER, Raja; JORGE, Alexander A.; MENDONCA, Berenice B.; ARGENTE, Jesus; BRITO, Vinicius N.; LATRONICO, Ana Claudia
    Context Central precocious puberty (CPP) can have a familial form in approximately one-quarter of the children. The recognition of this inherited condition increased after the identification of autosomal dominant CPP with paternal transmission caused by mutations in the MKRN3 and DLK1 genes. Objective We aimed to characterize the inheritance and estimate the prevalence of familial CPP in a large multiethnic cohort; to compare clinical and hormonal features, as well as treatment response to GnRH analogs (GnRHa), in children with distinct modes of transmission; and to investigate the genetic basis of familial CPP. Methods We retrospectively studied 586 children with a diagnosis of CPP. Patients with familial CPP (n = 276) were selected for clinical and genetic analysis. Data from previous studies were grouped, encompassing sequencing of MKRN3 and DLK1 genes in 204 patients. Large-scale parallel sequencing was performed in 48 individuals from 34 families. Results The prevalence of familial CPP was estimated at 22%, with a similar frequency of maternal and paternal transmission. Pedigree analyses of families with maternal transmission suggested an autosomal dominant inheritance. Clinical and hormonal features, as well as treatment response to GnRHa, were similar among patients with different forms of transmission of familial CPP. MKRN3 loss-of-function mutations were the most prevalent cause of familial CPP, followed by DLK1 loss-of-function mutations, affecting, respectively, 22% and 4% of the studied families; both affected exclusively families with paternal transmission. Rare variants of uncertain significance were identified in CPP families with maternal transmission. Conclusion We demonstrated a similar prevalence of familial CPP with maternal and paternal transmission. MKRN3 and DLK1 loss-of-function mutations were the major causes of familial CPP with paternal transmission.