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LIM/26 - Laboratório de Pesquisa em Cirurgia Experimental, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina

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  • article 14 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    A simplified experimental model of large-for-size liver transplantation in pigs
    (2013) LEAL, Antonio Jose Goncalves; TANNURI, Ana Cristina Aoun; BELON, Alessandro Rodrigo; GUIMARAES, Raimundo Renato Nunes; COELHO, Maria Cecilia Mendonca; GONCALVES, Josiane de Oliveira; SOKOL, Suellen Serafini; MELO, Evandro Sobroza De; OTOCH, Jose Pinhata; TANNURI, Uenis
    OBJECTIVE: The ideal ratio between liver graft mass and recipient body weight for liver transplantation in small infants is unknown; however, if this ratio is over 4%, a condition called large-for-size may occur. Experimental models of large-for-size liver transplants have not been described in the literature. In addition, orthotopic liver transplantation is marked by high morbidity and mortality rates in animals due to the clamping of the venous splanchnic system. Therefore, the objective of this study was to create a porcine model of large-for-size liver transplantation with clamping of the supraceliac aorta during the anhepatic phase as an alternative to venovenous bypass. METHOD: Fourteen pigs underwent liver transplantation with whole-liver grafts without venovenous bypass and were divided into two experimental groups: the control group, in which the weights of the donors were similar to the weights of the recipients; and the large-for-size group, in which the weights of the donors were nearly 2 times the weights of the recipients. Hemodynamic data, the results of serum biochemical analyses and histological examination of the transplanted livers were collected. RESULTS: The mortality rate in both groups was 16.5% (1/7). The animals in the large-for-size group had increased serum levels of potassium, sodium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase after graft reperfusion. The histological analyses revealed that there were no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: This transplant method is a feasible experimental model of large-for-size liver transplantation.
  • article 37 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Living Related Donor Liver Transplantation in Children
    Objective. The objective of this study was to report our experience with pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with living related donors. Methods. We performed a retrospective chart analysis of 121 living related donor liver transplantations (LRDLT) from June 1998 to June 2010. Results. Indications were biliary atresia (BA; n = 81), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 5), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (n = 4); cholestasis (n = 9), fulminant hepatic failure (n = 8), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 2), Alagille syndrome (n = 4), hepatoblastoma (n = 3), tyrosinemia (n = 2), and congenital hepatic fibrosis (n = 3). The age of the recipients ranged from 7-174 months (median, 22) and the weights ranged from 6-58 kg (median, 10). Forty-nine children (40.5%) weighed <= 10 kg. The grafts included the left lateral segment (n = 108), the left lobe (n = 12), and the right lobe (n = 1). The donors included 71 mothers, 45 fathers, 2 uncles, 1 grandmother, 1 grandfather, and 1 sister with a median age of 29 years (range, 16-53 ys) and a median weight of 68 kg (range, 47-106). Sixteen patients (12.9%) required retransplantation, most commonly due to hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT; n = 13; 10.7%). The other complications were biliary stenosis (n = 25; 20.6%), portal vein thrombosis (PVT; n = 11; 9.1%), portal vein stenosis (n = 5; 4.1%), hepatic vein stenosis (n = 6; 4.9%), and lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 8; 6.6%). The ultimate survival rate of recipients was 90.3% after 1 year and 75.8% after 3 years. Causes of early death within 1 month were HAT (n = 6), PVT (n = 2), severe graft dysfunction (n = 1), sepsis (n = 1), and intraoperative death in children with acute liver failure (n = 2). Causes of late deaths included lymphoproliferative disease (n = 3), chronic rejection (n = 2), biliary complications (n = 3), and recurrent disease (n = 3; hepatoblastoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis). Conclusions. Despite the heightened possibility of complications (mainly vascular), LRDLT represented a good alternative to transplantation from cadaveric donors in pediatric populations. It was associated with a high survival ratio.
  • article 8 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Does administering albumin to postoperative gastroschisis patients improve outcome?
    (2012) TANNURI, Ana Cristina A.; SILVA, Luanna M.; LEAL, Antonio Jose G.; MORAES, Augusto Cesar F. de; TANNURI, Uenis
    OBJECTIVES: Newborns who undergo surgery for gastroschisis correction may present with oliguria, anasarca, prolonged postoperative ileus, and infection. New postoperative therapeutic procedures were tested with the objective of improving postoperative outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-six newborns participated in one of two phases. Newborns in the first phase received infusions of large volumes of crystalloid solution and integral enteral formula, and newborns in the second phase received crystalloid solutions in smaller volumes, with albumin solution infusion when necessary and the late introduction of a semi-elemental diet. The studied variables were serum sodium and albumin levels, the need for albumin solution expansion, the occurrence of anasarca, the length of time on parenteral nutrition, the length of time before initiating an enteral diet and reaching a full enteral diet, orotracheal intubation time, length of hospitalization, and survival rates. RESULTS: Serum sodium levels were higher in newborns in the second phase. There was a correlation between low serum sodium levels and orotracheal intubation time; additionally, low serum albumin levels correlated with the length of time before the initiation of an oral diet and the time until a full enteral diet was reached. However, the discharge weights of newborns in the second phase were higher than in the first phase. The other studied variables, including survival rates (83.4% and 92.0%, respectively), were similar for both phases. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of an albumin solution to newborns in the early postoperative period following gastroschisis repair increased their low serum sodium levels but did not improve the final outcome. The introduction of a semi-elemental diet promoted an increase in body weight at the time of discharge.
  • article 16 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Mechanical bowel preparation for esophagocoloplasty in children: is it really necessary?
    (2013) Leal, A. J. G.; Tannuri, A. C. A.; Tannuri, U.
    Esophagocoloplasty is a commonly performed procedure for esophageal replacement in children. Traditionally, mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is performed before this operation. However, this practice has been questioned, initially in adults and now in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of MBP on esophagocoloplasty in a series of children. Data collected from 164 patients who underwent esophagocoloplasty in the Pediatric Surgery Division, University of SAo Paulo Medical School, from February 1978 to July 2011 were reviewed for postoperative complications. In 134 patients, at least one kind of MBP was performed before the surgery (PREP group). MBP was omitted in 30 patients (NO-PREP group). There was no statistical difference between the groups in the rates of evisceration, colocolic, or cologastric anastomotic dehiscence and death. However, in the NO-PREP group, the incidence of cervical leakage (6.6%) was significantly decreased in comparison with the classical PREP group (25.3%) (P= 0.03). The results of this study suggest that the omission of MBP has a positive impact on the incidence of postoperative complications in esophagocoloplasty.
  • article 7 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Congenital Absence of the Portal Vein: A Complex Disease with Multiple Manifestations and Types of Treatment
    (2011) TANNURI, U.; GALVAO, F.; LEAL, A. J. G.; GIBELLI, N. E.; TANNURI, A. C.
  • article 20 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Evolution of critically ill patients with gastroschisis from three tertiary centers
    (2011) TANNURI, Ana Cristina A.; SBRAGIA, Lourenco; TANNURI, Uenis; SILVA, Luanna M.; LEAL, Antonio Jose G.; SCHMIDT, Augusto Frederico S.; OLIVEIRA-FILHO, Antonio G.; BUSTORFF-SILVA, Joaquim Murray; VICENTE, Yvone A. M. V. A.; TAZIMA, Maria de Fatima G. S.; PILEGGI, Flavio O.; CAMPERONI, Alexandra L.
    OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION: Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal wall defect with increasing occurrence worldwide over the past 20-30 years. Our aim was to analyze the morbidity of newborns after gastroschisis closure, with emphasis on metabolic and hydroelectrolyte disturbances in patients at three tertiary university centers. METHODS: From January 2003 to June 2009, the following patient data were collected retrospectively: (A) Background maternal and neonatal data: maternal age, prenatal diagnosis, type of delivery, Apgar scores, birth weight, gestational age and sex; (B) Surgical modalities: primary or staged closure; and (C) Hospital course: levels of serum sodium and levels of serum albumin in the two first postoperative days, number of ventilation days, other postoperative variables and survival. Statistical analyses were used to examine the associations between some variables. RESULTS: 163 newborns were included in the study. Primary closure of the abdominal defect was performed in 111 cases (68.1%). The mean serum sodium level was 127.4 +/- 6.7 mEq/L, and the mean serum albumin level was 2.35 +/- 0.5 g/dL. Among the correlations between variables, it was verified that hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia correlated with the number of days on the ventilator but not with the number of days on total parenteral nutrition (TPN); mortality rate correlated with infection. The final survival rate was 85.9%. CONCLUSION: In newborns with gastroschisis, more aggressive attention to hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia would improve the outcome.
  • article 15 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy in Children for Neuroblastoma: Report of Case Series
    (2012) BARROS, Fabio de; ROMAO, Rodrigo Luiz Pinto; PINHO-APEZZATO, Maria Lucia de; VELHOTE, Manoel Carlos Prieto; RICARDI, Luiz Roberto Schilaich; LEAL, Antonio Jose Goncalves; TANNURI, Ana Cristina Aoun; CARVALHO, Bruna; ODONE-FILHO, Vicente; TANNURI, Uenis
    Background: Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population and the adrenal gland is the main abdominal site of this tumor. The laparoscopic approach has become the standard of care for most benign adrenal tumors in adults, but the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children for malignant tumor is still a point of controversy. However, there is a growing experience with laparoscopic neuroblastoma resection of small lesions and the use of minimally invasive techniques for the initial management of infiltrative neuroblastoma in the last years. The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience with laparoscopic adrenalectomy for neuroblastoma in children, based on surgical outcomes. Methods: A retrospective review of 7 laparoscopic adrenalectomies performed in a single institution between October 2008 and October 2009. We focused our analysis on early surgical outcomes. Results: The mean tumoral size was 2.8 +/- 0.9 cm, the average surgical time was 38.6 +/- 65.5 minutes, and the mean hospital stay was 2.9 +/- 1.6 days. One stage IV patient was submitted to conversion due to bleeding and needed blood transfusion. There were no late complications or deaths and the mean follow-up time was 18.8 +/- 6.1 months. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach for adrenal neuroblastoma resection is feasible in children with good outcomes, but should be reserved to patients with small, well-circumscribed adrenal lesions, without invasive or infiltrative disease.
  • article 16 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Effects of ischemic preconditioning in a pig model of large-for-size liver transplantation
    (2015) LEAL, Antonio Jose Goncalves; TANNURI, Ana Cristina Aoun; BELON, Alessandro Rodrigo; GUIMARAES, Raimundo Renato Nunes; COELHO, Maria Cecilia Mendonca; GONCALVES, Josiane de Oliveira; SERAFINI, Suellen; MELO, Evandro Sobroza de; TANNURI, Uenis
    OBJECTIVE: In most cases of pediatric liver transplantation, the clinical scenario of large-for-size transplants can lead to hepatic dysfunction and a decreased blood supply to the liver graft. The objective of the present experimental investigation was to evaluate the effects of ischemic preconditioning on this clinical entity. METHODS: Eighteen pigs were divided into three groups and underwent liver transplantation: a control group, in which the weights of the donors were similar to those of the recipients, a large-for-size group, and a large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning group. Blood samples were collected from the recipients to evaluate the pH and the sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. In addition, hepatic tissue was sampled from the recipients for histological evaluation, immunohistochemical analyses to detect hepatocyte apoptosis and proliferation and molecular analyses to evaluate the gene expression of Bax ( pro-apoptotic), Bcl-XL (anti-apoptotic), c-Fos and c-Jun (immediate-early genes), ischemia-reperfusion-related inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-alpha and IL-6, which is also a stimulator of hepatocyte regeneration), intracellular adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (a mediator of the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning) and TGF-beta (a pro-fibrogenic cytokine). RESULTS: All animals developed acidosis. At 1 hour and 3 hours after reperfusion, the animals in the large-for-size and large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning groups had decreased serum levels of Na and increased serum levels of K and aspartate aminotransferase compared with the control group. The molecular analysis revealed higher expression of the Bax, TNF-alpha, I-CAM and TGF-beta genes in the large-for-size group compared with the control and large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning groups. Ischemic preconditioning was responsible for an increase in c-Fos, IL-1, IL-6 and e-NOS gene expression. CONCLUSION: Ischemia-reperfusion injury in this model of large-for-size liver transplantation could be partially attenuated by ischemic preconditioning.
  • article 31 Citação(ões) na Scopus
    Management of gallstone disease in children: a new protocol based on the experience of a single center
    (2012) TANNURI, Ana Cristina A.; LEAL, Antonio Jose Goncalves; VELHOTE, Manoel Carlos Prieto; GONLCALVES, Manoel Ernesto Peanha; TANNURI, Uenis
    Background/purpose: Gallstones and cholelithiasis are being increasingly diagnosed in children owing to the widespread use of ultrasonography. The treatment of choice is cholecystectomy, and routine intraoperative cholangiography is recommended to explore the common bile duct. The objectives of this study were to describe our experience with the management of gallstone disease in childhood over the last 18 years and to propose an algorithm to guide the approach to cholelithiasis in children based on clinical and ultrasonographic findings. Methods: The data for this study were obtained by reviewing the records of all patients with gallstone disease treated between January 1994 and October 2011. The patients were divided into the following 5 groups based on their symptoms: group 1, asymptomatic; group 2, nonbiliary obstructive symptoms; group 3, acute cholecystitis symptoms; group 4, a history of biliary obstructive symptoms that were completely resolved by the time of surgery; and group 5, ongoing biliary obstructive symptoms. Patients were treated according to an algorithm based on their clinical, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings. Results: A total of 223 patients were diagnosed with cholelithiasis, and comorbidities were present in 177 patients (79.3%). The most common comorbidities were hemolytic disorders in 139 patients (62.3%) and previous bariatric surgery in 16 (7.1%). Although symptoms were present in 134 patients (60.0%), cholecystectomy was performed for all patients with cholelithiasis, even if they were asymptomatic; the surgery was laparoscopic in 204 patients and open in 19. Fifty-six patients (25.1%) presented with complications as the first sign of cholelithiasis (eg, pancreatitis, choledocolithiasis, or acute calculous cholecystitis). Intraoperative cholangiography was indicated in 15 children, and it was positive in only 1 (0.4%) for whom ERCP was necessary to extract the stone after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Preoperative ERCP was performed in 11 patients to extract the stones, and a hepaticojejunostomy was indicated in 2 patients. There were no injuries to the hepatic artery or common bile duct in our series. Conclusions: Based on our experience, we can propose an algorithm to guide the approach to cholelithiasis in the pediatric population. The final conclusion is that LC results in limited postoperative complications in children with gallstones. When a diagnosis of choledocolithiasis or dilation of the choledocus is made, ERCP is necessary if obstructive symptoms persist either before or after an LC. Intraoperative cholangiography and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration are not mandatory.
  • conferenceObject
    (2013) LEAL, Antonio Jose Goncalves; BELON, Alessandro Rodrigo; TANNURI, Ana Cristina Aoun; GUIMARAES, Raimundo Renato Nunes; COELHO, Maria Cecilia Mendonca; GONCALVES, Josiane De Oliveira; SOKOL, Suellen Serafini; MELO, Evandro Sobroza De; OTOCH, Jose Pinhata; TANNURI, Uenis
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to create a swine model of large-for-size liver transplantation, without venovenous bypass but clamping of the supraceliac aorta during the hepatic phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen Landrace-Large white pigs (weight 17 to 20 kg) were anesthetized with continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl, and mechanically ventilated. They underwent orthotopic liver transplantation(OLT) with whole liver grafts and were divided randomly into two experimental groups, according to donor size. Regular size group (NS-n=7): donors weight were similar to the receptors (17–20 kg). Large-for-size group (LFS-n=7): donors weight was nearly two times the receptor ′ s (40–50 kg). Blood for serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic tissue for histological examination and quantification of Bax (a proapoptotic protein) gene expression though real time PCR were sampled from the recipient at baseline, 1 and 3 h after portal reperfusion. RESULTS: In NS group, one death was related to hemodynamic instability just after aortic release and another due to bleeding by laceration on graft surface. In LFS 1,3 group, the two deaths were associated to hemodynamic instability just after aortic release. Table 1 shows the changes in AST levels over the experiment in both groups. Table 2 presents the histological results. Table 3 shows the results of Bax gene expression for the NS and LFS groups. CONCLUSION: This large-animal model is straightforward, reproducible, and clinically relevant. It provides the appropriate size and anatomy that resemble humans for the development and practice of new surgical techniques.