Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in adults in Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF POVERTY, v.8, article ID 3, 10p, 2019
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BackgroundHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a member of the Hepeviridae family; it has four main genotypes and one serotype. While genotypes 1 and 2 cause epidemic hepatitis and are transmitted via water and the fecal-oral route, genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. In the various seroprevalence studies of hepatitis E in Brazil, the numbers reported vary widely and are difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to analyze existing seroprevalence studies of hepatitis E in adults in Brazil.Main textWe searched the PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Embase databases for studies published from inception to May 12, 2018 concerning infection by HEV in Brazil without time period or language restrictions. We included studies that presented data concerning hepatitis E seroprevalence in adults in Brazil, had a sample size 50 patients and whose method used for the detection of anti-HEV was standardized and commercialized. We also evaluated the quality of the articles using a list of criteria that totalized 9 items. Of the 20 studies ultimately analyzed, 10 (50%) were from the southeast region of Brazil, 3 (15%) were from the central-west region, 3 (15%) were from the northern region, 2 (10%) were from the northeast region and 2 (10%) were from the southern region. Regarding the quality evaluation of the studies, the mean score was 5.6 (range: 4-8). The estimated overall seroprevalence of HEV infection in the adult population was 6.0% (95% CI: 5.0-7.0); in subgroup analyses, we observed that the prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in blood donors was 7.0% (95% CI: 5.0-8.0), whereas in the general population, it was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.0-4.0).ConclusionsThe results of this systematic review indicate that there should be national investment in the prevention of hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil, including the implementation of improvements in basic sanitation and guidance regarding the appropriate handling of animal waste and the optimal cooking of vegetables, meat and their derivatives.
Hepatitis E, Hepatitis E virus, Brazil, Prevalence, Systematic review
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