Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: prevalence, main characteristics, and outcomes in a Brazilian center

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article
Data de publicação
2023
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Editora
ASSOC ARQUIVOS NEURO- PSIQUIATRIA
Autores
SANTANA, Monize Nascimento
FERRARI, Raphaela
MACEDO, Arthur Cassa
MARCUSSO, Rosa Maria Nascimento
FERNANDES, Ruan de Andrade
Citação
ARQUIVOS DE NEURO-PSIQUIATRIA, v.81, n.10, p.883-890, 2023
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Unidades Organizacionais
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Resumo
Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) - immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been rarely described in low- and middle-income countries.Objective To describe the prevalence of PML-IRIS among PLWHA with PML and its main features in a tertiary hospital in Brazil.Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study. We included PLWHA with PML-IRIS patients admitted at Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas , Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2021. We retrieved information on neurological manifestations, neuroimaging findings, treatments, and outcomes.Results We identified 11 (11.8%) PML-IRIS cases among 93 patients with definite PML. Eight (73%) cases were men and had a median (IQR) age of 41 (27-50) years. Seven (63.6%) patients developed unmasking PML-IRIS and 4 (36.4%) had paradoxical PML-IRIS. The median (IQR) time from initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) to IRIS diagnosis was 49 (30-70) days. Ten (90.9%) patients received corticosteroids. There were 4 (36%) in-hospital deaths and 3 were associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among the 7 (64%) patients who survived, 5 (71.5%) had sequelae at discharge. One year after the PML-IRIS diagnosis, 6 (54.5%) patients were alive.Conclusion The prevalence of PML-IRIS was 11.8%. Most patients had unmasking PML-IRIS. In-hospital mortality and morbidity were high. One-year survival was similar to that described in some high-income countries.
There were 4 (36%) in-hospital deaths and 3 were associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among the 7 (64%) patients who survived, 5 (71.5%) had sequelae at discharge. One year after the PML-IRIS diagnosis, 6 (54.5%) patients were alive. Conclusion The prevalence of PML-IRIS was 11.8%. Most patients had unmasking PMLIRIS. In-hospital mortality and morbidity were high. One-year survival was similar to that described in some high-income countries. Resumo Antecedentes A síndrome inflamatória de reconstituição imune (SIRI) da leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva (LEMP) em pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA) foi raramente descrita em países de baixa e média renda. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência da SIRI-LEMP- em PVHA com LEMP e suas principais características em um hospital no Brasil. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo. Incluímos PVHA com SIRILEMP admitidos no Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brasil, entre 2011 e 2021. Recuperamos informações sobre manifestações neurológicas, neuroimagem, tratamento e desfecho. Resultados Identificamos 11 (11,8%) casos de SIRI-LEMP entre 93 pacientes com LEMP definitiva. Oito (73%) casos eram homens e a mediana de idade (amplitude interquartile - AIQ) foi de 41 (27–50) anos. Sete (63,6%) pacientes desenvolveram SIRILEMP “desmascarada” e 4 (36,4%) casos apresentaram SIRI-LEMP “paradoxal”. A mediana de tempo (AIQ) desde o início da terapia antirretroviral combinada (cART) até o diagnóstico de SIRI foi de 49 (30–70) dias. Dez (90,9%) pacientes receberam corticoide. Houve 4 (36%) óbitos intra-hospitalares e 3 foram associados à pneumonia hospitalar. Dos 7 (64%) pacientes que sobreviveram, 5 (71,5%) ficaram com sequelas na alta. Um ano após o diagnóstico de SIRI-LEMP, 6 (54,5%) pacientes estavam vivos. Conclusão A prevalência de SIRI-LEMP foi de 11,8%. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava SIRI-LEMP “desmascarada”. A mortalidade e morbidade hospitalar foram altas. A sobrevida em 1 ano foi semelhante à descrita em alguns países de alta renda.
Palavras-chave
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Epidemiology, HIV, Brazil, Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva, Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune, Epidemiologia, HIV, Brasil
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