Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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dc.contributor Sistema FMUSP-HC: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP) e Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP
dc.contributor.author GAKIDOU, Emmanuela
AFSHIN, Ashkan
ABAJOBIR, Amanuel Alemu
ABATE, Kalkidan Hassen
ABBAFATI, Cristiana
ABBAS, Kaja M.
ABD-ALLAH, Foad
ABDULLE, Abdishakur M.
ABERA, Semaw Ferede
ABOYANS, Victor
ABU-RADDAD, Laith J.
ABU-RMEILEH, Niveen M. E.
ABYU, Gebre Yitayih
ADEDEJI, Isaac Akinkunmi
ADETOKUNBOH, Olatunji
AFARIDEH, Mohsen
AGRAWAL, Anurag
AGRAWAL, Sutapa
KIADALIRI, Aliasghar Ahmad
AHMADIEH, Hamid
AHMED, Muktar Beshir
AICHOUR, Amani Nidhal
AICHOUR, Ibtihel
AICHOUR, Miloud Taki Eddine
AKINYEMI, Rufus Olusola
AKSEER, Nadia
ALAHDAB, Fares
AL-ALY, Ziyad
ALAM, Khurshid
ALAM, Noore
ALAM, Tahiya
ALASFOOR, Deena
ALENE, Kefyalew Addis
ALI, Komal
ALIZADEH-NAVAEI, Reza
ALKERWI, Ala'a
ALLA, Francois
ALLEBECK, Peter
AL-RADDADI, Rajaa
ALSHARIF, Ubai
ALTIRKAWI, Khalid A.
ALVIS-GUZMAN, Nelson
AMARE, Azmeraw T.
AMINI, Erfan
AMMAR, Walid
AMOAKO, Yaw Ampem
ANSARI, Hossein
ANTO, Josep M.
ANTONIO, Carl Abelardo T.
ANWARI, Palwasha
ARIAN, Nicholas
ARNLOV, Johan
ARTAMAN, A.
ARYAL, Krishna Kumar
ASAYESH, Hamid
ASGEDOM, Solomon Weldegebreal
ATEY, Tesfay Mehari
AVILA-BURGOS, Leticia
AVOKPAHO, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
AWASTHI, Ashish
AZZOPARDI, Peter
BACHA, Umar
BADAWI, Alaa
BALAKRISHNAN, Kalpana
BALLEW, Shoshana H.
BARAC, Aleksandra
BARBER, Ryan M.
BARKER-COLLO, Suzanne L.
BARNIGHAUSEN, Till
BARQUERA, Simon
BARREGARD, Lars
BARRERO, Lope H.
BATIS, Carolina
BATTLE, Katherine E.
BAUNE, Bernhard T.
BEARDSLEY, Justin
BEDI, Neeraj
BEGHI, Ettore
BELL, Michelle L.
BENNETT, Derrick A.
BENNETT, James R.
BENSENOR, Isabela M. FMUSP-HC
BERHANE, Adugnaw
BERHE, Derbew Fikadu
BERNABE, Eduardo
BETSU, Balem Demtsu
BEURAN, Mircea
BEYENE, Addisu Shunu
BHANSALI, Anil
BHUTTA, Zulfiqar A.
BIKBOV, Boris
BIRUNGI, Charles
BIRYUKOV, Stan
BLOSSER, Christopher D.
BONEYA, Dube Jara
BOU-ORM, Ibrahim R.
BRAUER, Michael
BREITBORDE, Nicholas J. K.
BRENNER, Hermann
BRUGHA, Traolach S.
BULTO, Lemma Negesa Bulto
BAUMGARNER, Blair R.
BUTT, Zahid A.
CAHUANA-HURTADO, Lucero
CARDENAS, Rosario
CARRERO, Juan Jesus
CASTANEDA-ORJUELA, Carlos A.
CATALA-LOPEZ, Ferran
CERCY, Kelly
CHANG, Hsing-Yi
CHARLSON, Fiona J.
CHIMED-OCHIR, Odgerel
CHISUMPA, Vesper Hichilombwe
CHITHEER, Abdulaal A.
CHRISTENSEN, Hanne
CHRISTOPHER, Devasahayam Jesudas
CIRILLO, Massimo
COHEN, Aaron J.
COMFORT, Haley
COOPER, Cyrus
CORESH, Josef
CORNABY, Leslie
CORTESI, Paolo Angelo
CRIQUI, Michael H.
CRUMP, John A.
DANDONA, Lalit
DANDONA, Rakhi
NEVES, Jose das
DAVEY, Gail
DAVITOIU, Dragos V.
DAVLETOV, Kairat
COURTEN, Barbora de
DEGENHARDT, Louisa
DEIPARINE, Selina
DELLAVALLE, Robert P.
DERIBE, Kebede
DESHPANDE, Aniruddha
DHARMARATNE, Samath D.
DING, Eric L.
DJALALINIA, Shirin
Huyen Phuc Do
DOKOVA, Klara
DOKU, David Teye
DORSEY, E. Ray
DRISCOLL, Tim R.
DUBEY, Manisha
DUNCAN, Bruce Bartholow
DUNCAN, Sarah
EBERT, Natalie
EBRAHIMI, Hedyeh
EL-KHATIB, Ziad Ziad
ENAYATI, Ahmadali
ENDRIES, Aman Yesuf
ERMAKOV, Sergey Petrovich
ERSKINE, Holly E.
ESHRATI, Babak
ESKANDARIEH, Sharareh
ESTEGHAMATI, Alireza
ESTEP, Kara
FARAON, Emerito Jose Aquino
FARINHA, Carla Sofia E Sa
FARO, Andre
FARZADFAR, Farshad
FAY, Kairsten
FEIGIN, Valery L.
FERESHTEHNEJAD, Seyed-Mohammad
FERNANDES, Joao C.
FERRARI, Alize J.
FEYISSA, Tesfaye Regassa
FILIP, Irina
FISCHER, Florian
FITZMAURICE, Christina
FLAXMAN, Abraham D.
FOIGT, Nataliya
FOREMAN, Kyle J.
FROSTAD, Joseph J.
FULLMAN, Nancy
FURST, Thomas
FURTADO, Joao M.
GANJI, Morsaleh
GARCIA-BASTEIRO, Alberto L.
GEBREHIWOT, Tsegaye Tewelde
GELEIJNSE, Johanna M.
GELETO, Ayele
GEMECHU, Bikila Lencha
GESESEW, Hailay Abrha
GETHING, Peter W.
GHAJAR, Alireza
GIBNEY, Katherine B.
GILL, Paramjit Singh
GILLUM, Richard F.
GIREF, Ababi Zergaw
GISHU, Melkamu Dedefo
GIUSSANI, Giorgia
GODWIN, William W.
GONA, Philimon N.
GOODRIDGE, Amador
GOPALANI, Sameer Vali
GORYAKIN, Yevgeniy
GOULART, Alessandra Carvalho FMUSP-HC
GRAETZ, Nicholas
GUGNANI, Harish Chander
GUO, Jingwen
GUPTA, Rajeev
GUPTA, Tanush
GUPTA, Vipin
GUTIERREZ, Reyna A.
HACHINSKI, Vladimir
HAFEZI-NEJAD, Nima
HAILU, Gessessew Bugssa
HAMADEH, Randah Ribhi
HAMIDI, Samer
HAMMAMI, Mouhanad
HANDAL, Alexis J.
HANKEY, Graeme J.
HARB, Hilda L.
HARERI, Habtamu Abera
HASSANVAND, Mohammad Sadegh
HAVMOELLER, Rasmus
HAWLEY, Caitlin
HAY, Simon I.
HEDAYATI, Mohammad T.
HENDRIE, Delia
HEREDIA-PI, Ileana Beatriz
HOEK, Hans W.
HORITA, Nobuyuki
HOSGOOD, H. Dean
HOSTIUC, Sorin
HOY, Damian G.
HSAIRI, Mohamed
HU, Guoqing
HUANG, Hsiang
HUANG, John J.
IBURG, Kim Moesgaard
IKEDA, Chad
INOUE, Manami
IRVINE, Caleb Mackay Salpeter
JACKSON, Maria Delores
JACOBSEN, Kathryn H.
JAHANMEHR, Nader
JAKOVLJEVIC, Mihajlo (Michael) B.
JAUREGUI, Alejandra
JAVANBAKHT, Mehdi
JEEMON, Panniyammakal
JOHANSSON, Lars R. K.
JOHNSON, Catherine O.
JONAS, Jost B.
JURISSON, Mikk
KABIR, Zubair
KADEL, Rajendra
KAHSAY, Amaha
KAMAL, Ritul
KARCH, Andre
KAREMA, Corine Kakizi
KASAEIAN, Amir
KASSEBAUM, Nicholas J.
KASTOR, Anshul
KATIKIREDDI, Srinivasa Vittal
KAWAKAMI, Norito
KEIYORO, Peter Njenga
KELBORE, Sefonias Getachew
KEMMER, Laura
KENGNE, Andre Pascal
KESAVACHANDRAN, Chandrasekharan Nair
KHADER, Yousef Saleh
KHALIL, Ibrahim A.
KHAN, Ejaz Ahmad
KHANG, Young-Ho
KHOSRAVI, Ardeshir
KHUBCHANDANI, Jagdish
KIELING, Christian
KIM, Daniel
KIM, Jun Y.
KIM, Yun Jin
KIMOKOTI, Ruth W.
KINFU, Yohannes
KISA, Adnan
KISSIMOVA-SKARBEK, Katarzyna A.
KIVIMAKI, Mika
KNIBBS, Luke D.
KNUDSEN, Ann Kristin
KOPEC, Jacek A.
KOSEN, Soewarta
KOUL, Parvaiz A.
KOYANAGI, Ai
KRAVCHENKO, Michael
KROHN, Kristopher J.
KROMHOUT, Hans
DEFO, Barthelemy Kuate
BICER, Burcu Kucuk
KUMAR, G. Anil
KUTZ, Michael
KYU, Hmwe H.
LAL, Dharmesh Kumar
LALLOO, Ratilal
LALLUKKA, Tea
LAN, Qing
LANSINGH, Van C.
LARSSON, Anders
LEE, Alexander
LEE, Paul H.
LEIGH, James
LEUNG, Janni
LEVI, Miriam
LI, Yichong
LI, Yongmei
LIANG, Xiaofeng
LIBEN, Misgan Legesse
LINN, Shai
LIU, Patrick
LODHA, Rakesh
LOGROSCINO, Giancarlo
LOOKER, Katherine J.
LOPEZ, Alan D.
LORKOWSKI, Stefan
LOTUFO, Paulo A. FMUSP-HC
LOZANO, Rafael
LUNEVICIUS, Raimundas
MACARAYAN, Erlyn Rachelle King
RAZEK, Hassan Magdy Abd el
RAZEK, Mohammed Magdy Abd el
MAJDAN, Marek
MAJDZADEH, Reza
MAJEED, Azeem
MALEKZADEH, Reza
MALHOTRA, Rajesh
MALTA, Deborah Carvalho
MAMUN, Abdullah A.
MANGUERRA, Helena
MANTOVANI, Lorenzo G.
MAPOMA, Chabila C.
MARTIN, Randall V.
MARTINEZ-RAGA, Jose
MARTINS-MELO, Francisco Rogerlandio
MATHUR, Manu Raj
MATSUSHITA, Kunihiro
MATZOPOULOS, Richard
MAZIDI, Mohsen
MCALINDEN, Colm
MCGRATH, John J.
MEHATA, Suresh
MEHNDIRATTA, Man Mohan
MEIER, Toni
MELAKU, Yohannes Adama
MEMIAH, Peter
MEMISH, Ziad A.
MENDOZA, Walter
MENGESHA, Melkamu Merid
MENSAH, George A.
MENSINK, Gert B. M.
MERETA, Seid Tiku
MERETOJA, Atte
MERETOJA, Tuomo J.
MEZGEBE, Haftay Berhane
MICHA, Renata
MILLEAR, Anoushka
MILLER, Ted R.
MINNIG, Shawn
MIRAREFIN, Mojde
MIRRAKHIMOV, Erkin M.
MISGANAW, Awoke
MISHRA, Shiva Raj
MOHAMMAD, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
MOHAMMED, Kedir Endris
MOHAMMED, Shafiu
IBRAHIM, Norlinah Mohamed
MOHAN, Murali B. V.
MOKDAD, Ali H.
MONASTA, Lorenzo
HERNANDEZ, Julio Cesar Montanez
MONTICO, Marcella
MORADI-LAKEH, Maziar
MORAGA, Paula
MORAWSKA, Lidia
MORRISON, Shane D.
MOUNTJOY-VENNING, Cliff
MUELLER, Ulrich O.
MULLANY, Erin C.
MULLER, Kate
MURTHY, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
MUSA, Kamarul Imran
NAGHAVI, Mohsen
NAHEED, Aliya
NANGIA, Vinay
NATARAJAN, Gopalakrishnan
NEGOI, Ionut
NEGOI, Ruxandra Irina
Cuong Tat Nguyen
Grant Nguyen
Minh Nguyen
Quyen Le Nguyen
Trang Huyen Nguyen
NICHOLS, Emma
NINGRUM, Dina Nur Anggraini
NOMURA, Marika
Vuong Minh Nong
NORHEIM, Ole F.
NORRVING, Bo
NOUBIAP, Jean Jacques N.
OBERMEYER, Carla Makhlouf
OGBO, Felix Akpojene
OH, Hwan
OLADIMEJI, Olanrewaju
OLAGUNJU, Andrew Toyin
OLAGUNJU, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi
OLIVARES, Pedro R.
OLSEN, Helen E.
OLUSANYA, Bolajoko Olubukunola
OLUSANYA, Jacob Olusegun
OPIO, John Nelson
OREN, Eyal
ORTIZ, Alberto
OTA, Erika
OWOLABI, Mayowa O.
PA, Mahesh
PACELLA, Rosana E.
PANA, Adrian
PANDA, Basant Kumar
PANDA-JONAS, Songhomitra
PANDIAN, Jeyaraj D.
PAPACHRISTOU, Christina
PARK, Eun-Kee
PARRY, Charles D.
PATTEN, Scott B.
PATTON, George C.
PEREIRA, David M.
PERICO, Norberto
PESUDOVS, Konrad
PETZOLD, Max
PHILLIPS, Michael Robert
PILLAY, Julian David
PIRADOV, Michael A.
PISHGAR, Farhad
PLASS, Dietrich
PLETCHER, Martin A.
POLINDER, Suzanne
POPOVA, Svetlana
POULTON, Richie G.
POURMALEK, Farshad
PRASAD, Narayan
PURCELL, Carrie
QORBANI, Mostafa
RADFAR, Amir
RAFAY, Anwar
RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Afarin
RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Vafa
RAHMAN, Mahfuzar
RAHMAN, Mohammad Hifz Ur
RAHMAN, Muhammad Aziz
RAI, Rajesh Kumar
RAJSIC, Sasa
RAM, Usha
RAWAF, Salman
REHM, Colin D.
REHM, Jurgen
REINER, Robert C.
REITSMA, Marissa B.
REYNALES-SHIGEMATSU, Luz Myriam
REMUZZI, Giuseppe
RENZAHO, Andre M. N.
RESNIKOFF, Serge
REZAEI, Satar
RIBEIRO, Antonio L.
RIVERA, Juan A.
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ROJAS-RUEDA, David
ROMAN, Yesenia
ROOM, Robin
ROSHANDEL, Gholamreza
ROTH, Gregory A.
ROTHENBACHER, Dietrich
RUBAGOTTI, Enrico
RUSHTON, Lesley
SADAT, Nafis
SAFDARIAN, Mahdi
SAFI, Sare
SAFIRI, Saeid
SAHATHEVAN, Ramesh
SALAMA, Joseph
SALOMON, Joshua A.
SAMY, Abdallah M.
SANABRIA, Juan Ramon
SANCHEZ-NINO, Maria Dolores
SANCHEZ-PIMIENTA, Tania G.
SANTOMAURO, Damian
SANTOS, Itamar S. FMUSP-HC
MILICEVIC, Milena M. Santric
SARTORIUS, Benn
SATPATHY, Maheswar
SAWHNEY, Monika
SAXENA, Sonia
SCHAEFFNER, Elke
SCHMIDT, Maria Ines
SCHNEIDER, Ione J. C.
SCHUTTE, Aletta E.
SCHWEBEL, David C.
SCHWENDICKE, Falk
SEEDAT, Soraya
SEPANLOU, Sadaf G.
SERDAR, Berrin
SERVAN-MORI, Edson E.
SHADDICK, Gavin
SHAHEEN, Amira
SHAHRAZ, Saeid
SHAIKH, Masood Ali
LEVY, Teresa Shamah
SHAMSIPOUR, Mansour
SHAMSIZADEH, Morteza
ISLAM, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
SHARMA, Jayendra
SHARMA, Rajesh
SHE, Jun
SHEN, Jiabin
SHI, Peilin
SHIBUYA, Kenji
SHIELDS, Chloe
SHIFERAW, Mekonnen Sisay
SHIGEMATSU, Mika
SHIN, Min-Jeong
SHIRI, Rahman
SHIRKOOHI, Reza
SHISHANI, Kawkab
SHOMAN, Haitham
SHRIME, Mark G.
SIGFUSDOTTIR, Inga Dora
SILVA, Diego Augusto Santos
SILVA, Joao Pedro
SILVEIRA, Dayane Gabriele Alves
SINGH, Jasvinder A.
SINGH, Virendra
SINHA, Dhirendra Narain
SKIADARESI, Eirini
SLEPAK, Erica Leigh
SMITH, David L.
SMITH, Mari
SOBAIH, Badr H. A.
SOBNGWI, Eugene
SONEJI, Samir
SORENSEN, Reed J. D.
SPOSATO, Luciano A.
SREERAMAREDDY, Chandrashekhar T.
SRINIVASAN, Vinay
STEEL, Nicholas
STEIN, Dan J.
STEINER, Caitlyn
STEINKE, Sabine
STOKES, Mark Andrew
STRUB, Bryan
SUBART, Michelle
SUFIYAN, Muawiyyah Babale
STRUB, Bryan
SUBART, Michelle
SUFIYAN, Muawiyyah Babale
SULIANKATCHI, Rizwan Abdulkader
SUR, Patrick J.
SWAMINATHAN, Soumya
SYKES, Bryan L.
SZOEKE, Cassandra E. I.
TABARES-SEISDEDOS, Rafael
TADAKAMADLA, Santosh Kumar
TAKAHASHI, Ken
TAKALA, Jukka S.
TANDON, Nikhil
TANNER, Marcel
TAREKEGN, Yihunie L.
TAVAKKOLI, Mohammad
TEGEGNE, Teketo Kassaw
TEHRANI-BANIHASHEMI, Arash
TERKAWI, Abdullah Sulieman
TESSSEMA, Belay
THAKUR, J. S.
THAMSUWAN, Ornwipa
THANKAPPAN, Kavumpurathu Raman
THEIS, Andrew M.
THOMAS, Matthew Lloyd
THOMSON, Alan J.
THRIFT, Amanda G.
TILLMANN, Taavi
TOBE-GAI, Ruoyan
TOBOLLIK, Myriam
TOLLANES, Mette C.
TONELLI, Marcello
TOPOR-MADRY, Roman
TORRE, Anna
TORTAJADA, Miguel
TOUVIER, Mathilde
TRAN, Bach Xuan
TRUELSEN, Thomas
TUEM, Kald Beshir
TUZCU, Emin Murat
TYROVOLAS, Stefanos
UKWAJA, Kingsley Nnanna
UNEKE, Chigozie Jesse
UPDIKE, Rachel
UTHMAN, Olalekan A.
BOVEN, Job F. M. van
DONKELAAR, Aaron van
VARUGHESE, Santosh
VASANKARI, Tommi
VEERMAN, Lennert J.
VENKATESWARAN, Vidhya
VENKETASUBRAMANIAN, Narayanaswamy
VIOLANTE, Francesco S.
VLADIMIROV, Sergey K.
VLASSOV, Vasiliy Victorovich
VOLLSET, Stein Emil
VOS, Theo
WADILO, Fiseha
WAKAYO, Tolassa
WALLIN, Mitchell T.
WANG, Yuan-Pang FMUSP-HC
WEICHENTHAL, Scott
WEIDERPASS, Elisabete
WEINTRAUB, Robert G.
WEISS, Daniel J.
WERDECKER, Andrea
WESTERMAN, Ronny
WHITEFORD, Harvey A.
WIYSONGE, Charles Shey
WOLDEYES, Belete Getahun
WOLFE, Charles D. A.
WOODBROOK, Rachel
WORKICHO, Abdulhalik
HANSON, Sarah Wulf
XAVIER, Denis
XU, Gelin
YADGIR, Simon
YAKOB, Bereket
YAN, Lijing L.
YASERI, Mehdi
YIMAM, Hassen Hamid
YIP, Paul
YONEMOTO, Naohiro
YOON, Seok-Jun
YOTEBIENG, Marcel
YOUNIS, Mustafa Z.
ZAIDI, Zoubida
ZAKI, Maysaa El Sayed
ZAVALA-ARCINIEGA, Luis
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dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation LANCET, v.390, n.10100, p.1345-1422, 2017
dc.identifier.issn 0140-6736
dc.identifier.uri http://observatorio.fm.usp.br/handle/OPI/21787
dc.description.abstract Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124.1 million DALYs [95% UI 111.2 million to 137.0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122.2 million DALYs [110.3 million to 133.3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83.0 million DALYs [78.3 million to 87.7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89.9 million DALYs [80.9 million to 98.2 million]), high body-mass index (64.8 million DALYs [44.4 million to 87.6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63.8 million DALYs [53.2 million to 76.3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9.3% (6.9-11.6) decline in deaths and a 10.8% (8.3-13.1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14.9% (12.7-17.5) of deaths and 6.2% (3.9-8.7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of deaths and 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27.3% (24.9-29.7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Interpretation Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade.
dc.description.sponsorship · Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
· Bloomberg Philanthropies
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
dc.relation.ispartof Lancet
dc.rights restrictedAccess
dc.subject.other precautionary principle; obesity prevention; chinese population; health-risks; cost; epidemiology; hypertension; mortality; countries; deaths
dc.title Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
dc.type article
dc.rights.holder Copyright ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
dc.contributor.groupauthor GBD Risk Factors Collaborators
dc.description.group LIM/20
dc.description.group LIM/23
dc.description.group LIM/51
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32366-8
dc.identifier.pmid 28919119
dc.type.category original article
dc.type.version publishedVersion
hcfmusp.author BENSENOR, Isabela M.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author GOULART, Alessandra Carvalho:HU:SCPACEX-62
hcfmusp.author LOTUFO, Paulo A.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author SANTOS, Itamar S.:FM:MCM
hcfmusp.author WANG, Yuan-Pang:HC:IPQ
hcfmusp.origem.id WOS:000410630000006
hcfmusp.origem.id 2-s2.0-85031722400
hcfmusp.publisher.city NEW YORK
hcfmusp.publisher.country USA
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dc.description.index MEDLINE
dc.identifier.eissn 1474-547X
hcfmusp.citation.scopus 885
hcfmusp.citation.wos 857
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