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Title: Rivaroxaban: An Affordable and Effective Alternative in Cancer-Related Thrombosis?
Authors: XAVIER, Flavia DiasHOFF, Paulo Marcelo GehmBRAGHIROLI, Maria IgnezPATERLINI, Ana Carolina Carvalho RochaSOUZA, Karla TeixeiraFARIA, Luiza Dib Batista BugiatoFERREIRA, Fernando Sergio BlummMACHADO, Karime KalilFERNANDES, Gustavo dos Santos
Citation: JOURNAL OF GLOBAL ONCOLOGY, v.3, n.1, p.15-22, 2017
Abstract: Background Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) are common and potentially fatal complications in cancer patients, and they are responsible for the second most common cause of death. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the gold-standard treatment, but the costs involved limit its use, especially in developing countries. Recently, the oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban, which directly inhibits factor Xa, was approved for VTE treatment. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis from January 2009 to February 2014 with patients who had cancer and VTE who were receiving rivaroxaban. We compared the efficacy, safety, and cost of rivaroxaban and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) alone or followed by vitamin K antagonists. Results Forty-one patients were identified, with a median age of 62.5 years. The most frequent tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (78%), which was most often found in the colon (26.8%). Most participants had advanced disease and an implanted central venous catheter. Patients VTE risk-assessment scores were low (12.5%), intermediate (50%), and high (35.5%). Pulmonary thromboembolism was reported in 41.4% of patients, but inferior limb thrombosis was reported only in 14.6%; 43.9% of patients received enoxaparin before starting rivaroxaban. Rivaroxaban was used for a median time of 5.5 months. Nonmajor bleeding was reported in 12.2% of patients, and rethrombosis was reported in 12.2%. In our study, rivaroxaban was as safe and effective as enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonists (P = .54 and P = .25, respectively) or LMWH (P = .46 and P = .29, respectively). Conclusion Although our study was a retrospective analysis, our results suggest that in this cohort of oncologic patients, rivaroxaban was safe and effective. Its oral route and lower cost make it an attractive alternative to LMWH, improving management of patients with cancer in low-income countries. Additional studies are necessary to confirm our data. (C) 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
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