Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://observatorio.fm.usp.br/handle/OPI/32405
Title: Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
Authors: BIXBY, HonorBENTHAM, JamesZHOU, BinCESARE, Mariachiara DiPACIOREK, Christopher J.BENNETT, James E.TADDEI, CristinaSTEVENS, Gretchen A.RODRIGUEZ-MARTINEZ, AndreaCARRILLO-LARCO, Rodrigo M.KHANG, Young-HoSORIC, MarojeGREGG, Edward W.MIRANDA, J. JaimeBHUTTA, Zulfiqar A.SAVIN, StefanSOPHIEA, Marisa K.IURILLI, Maria L. C.SOLOMON, Bethlehem D.COWAN, Melanie J.RILEY, Leanne M.DANAEI, GoodarzBOVET, PascalCHIRITA-EMANDI, AdelaHAMBLETON, Ian R.HAYES, Alison J.IKEDA, NayuKENGNE, Andre P.LAXMAIAH, AvulaLI, YanpingMCGARVEY, Stephen T.MOSTAFA, AyaNEOVIUS, MartinSTARC, GregorZAINUDDIN, Ahmad A.ABARCA-GOMEZ, LeandraABDEEN, Ziad A.ABDRAKHMANOVA, ShynarGHAFFAR, Suhaila AbdulHAMID, Zargar AbdulGARBA, Jamila AbubakarABU-RMEILEH, Niveen M.ACOSTA-CAZARES, BenjaminADAMS, Robert J.AEKPLAKORN, WichaiAFSANA, KaosarAGDEPPA, Imelda A.AGUILAR-SALINAS, Carlos A.AGYEMANG, CharlesAHMAD, Mohamad HasnanAHMAD, Noor AniAHMADI, NaserAHMADVAND, AlirezaAHRENS, WolfgangAJLOUNI, KamelALBUHAIRAN, FadiaALDHUKAIR, ShahlaAL-HAZZAA, Hazzaa M.ALI, Mohamed M.ALI, OsmanALKERWI, Ala'aAL-OTHMAN, Amani RashedAL-RADDADI, RajaaALVAREZ-PEDREROL, MarALY, EmanAMARAPURKAR, Deepak N.AMOUYEL, PhilippeAMUZU, AntoinetteBO, LarsANDERSSEN, Sigmund A.ANGQUIST, Lars H.ANJANA, Ranjit MohanANSARI-MOGHADDAM, AlirezaAOUNALLAH-SKHIRI, HajerARAUJO, JoanaARIANSEN, IngerARIS, TahirARKU, Raphael E.ARLAPPA, NimmathotaARYAL, Krishna K.ASPELUND, ThorASSAH, Felix K.ASSUNCAO, Maria Cecilia F.AUNG, May SoeAUVINEN, JuhaAVDICOVA, MariaAZEVEDO, AnaAZIZI, FereidounAZMIN, MehrdadBABU, Bontha V.BAHARUDIN, AzliBAHIJRI, SuhadBAKER, Jennifer L.BALAKRISHNA, NagallaBAMOSHMOOSH, MohamedBANACH, MaciejBANDOSZ, PiotrBANEGAS, Jose R.BARBAGALLO, Carlo M.BARCELO, AlbertoBARKAT, AminaBARROS, Aluisio J. D.BARROS, Mauro V. G.BATA, IqbalBATIEHA, Anwar M.BATISTA, Rosangela L.BATTAKOVA, ZhamilyaBATYRBEK, AssembekovBAUR, Louise A.BEAGLEHOLE, RobertBEL-SERRAT, SilviaROMDHANE, Habiba BenBENEDICS, JudithBENET, MikhailBERKINBAYEV, SalimBERNABE-ORTIZ, AntonioBERNOTIENE, GailuteBETTIOL, HeloisaBHAGYALAXMI, AroorBHARADWAJ, SumitBHARGAVA, Santosh K.BI, HongshengBI, YufangBIEHL, AnnaLELE, Elysee Claude BikaBIKBOV, MukharramBISTA, BihungumBJELICA, Dusko J.BJERREGAARD, PeterBJERTNESS, EspenBJERTNESS, Marius B.BJORKELUND, CeciliaBLOKSTRA, AnnekeBO, SimonaBOBAK, MartinBODDY, Lynne M.BOEHM, Bernhard O.BOEING, HeinerBOGGIA, Jose G.BOISSONNET, Carlos P.BONACCIO, MarialauraBONGARD, VaninaBOPP, MatthiasBORCHINI, RossanaBORGHS, HermanBRAECKEVELT, LienBRAECKMAN, LutgartBRAGT, Marjolijn C. E.BRAJKOVICH, ImperiaBRANCA, FrancescoBRECKENKAMP, JuergenBREDA, JoaoBRENNER, HermannBREWSTER, Lizzy M.BRIAN, Garry R.BRINDUSE, LacramioaraBRUNO, GraziellaBUENO-DE-MESQUITA, H. BasBUGGE, AnnaBUONCRISTIANO, MartaBURAZERI, GencBURNS, ConLEON, Antonio Cabrera deCACCIOTTOLO, JosephCAI, HuiCAMA, TilemaCAMERON, ChristineCAMOLAS, JoseCAN, GamzeCAN, GunayCANDIDO, Ana Paula C.CANETE, FeliciaCAPANZANA, Mario V.CAPUANO, EduardoCAPUANO, VincenzoCARDOSO, Viviane C.CARLSSON, Axel C.CARMUEGA, EstebanCARVALHO, Maria J.CASANUEVA, Felipe F.CASAS, Juan-PabloCASERTA, Carmelo A.CELIKCAN, ErtugrulCENSI, LauraCESAR, Juraci A.CHAMUKUTTAN, SnehalathaCHAN, Angelique W.CHAN, QueenieCHATURVEDI, Himanshu K.CHATURVEDI, NishiRAHIM, Norsyamlina Che AbdulCHEN, Chien-JenCHEN, FangfangCHEN, HuashuaiCHEN, ShuohuaCHEN, ZhengmingCHENG, Ching-YuCHENG, Yiling J.CHETRIT, AngelaCHIKOVA-ISCENER, EkaterinaCHIOLERO, ArnaudCHIOU, Shu-TiCHIRLAQUE, Maria-DoloresCHO, BelongCHO, YumiCHRISTENSEN, KaareCHRISTOFARO, Diego G.CHUDEK, JerzyCIFKOVA, RenataCILIA, MichelleCINTEZA, ElizaCLAESSENS, FrankCLARKE, JanineCLAYS, ElsCONCIN, HansCONFORTIN, Susana C.COOPER, CyrusCOPPINGER, Tara C.COSTANZO, SimonaCOTTEL, DominiqueCOWELL, ChrisCRAIG, Cora L.CRAMPIN, Amelia C.CRUJEIRAS, Ana B.CRUZ, Juan J.CUCU, AlexandraCUI, LiufuDALLONGEVILLE, JeanDAMASCENO, AlbertinoDAMSGAARD, Camilla T.DANKNER, RachelDANTOFT, Thomas M.D'ARRIGO, GraziellaDASGUPTA, ParasmaniDASTGIRI, SaeedDAUCHET, LucDAVLETOV, KairatBACKER, Guy DeBACQUER, Dirk DeCURTIS, Amalia DeGAETANO, Giovanni deHENAUW, Stefaan DeOLIVEIRA, Paula Duarte deRIDDER, Karin DeROOIJ, Susanne R. deSMEDT, Delphine DeDEEPA, MohanDEEV, Alexander D.DEHGHAN, AbbasDELISLE, HeleneDELPEUCH, FrancisDENNISON, ElaineDESCHAMPS, ValerieDHANA, KlodianDHIMAL, MeghnathCASTELNUOVO, Augusto F. DiDIAS-DA-COSTA, Juvenal SoaresDIAZ, AlejandroDIKA, ZivkaDJALALINIA, ShirinDO, Ha T. P.DOBSON, Annette J.DONATI, Maria BenedettaDONFRANCESCO, ChiaraDONOSO, Silvana P.DOERING, AngelaDOROBANTU, MariaDOROSTY, Ahmad RezaD'ORSI, EleonoraDOUA, KouamelanDRYGAS, WojciechDUAN, Jia LiDUANTE, Charmaine A.DUDA, Rosemary B.DULEVA, VesselkaDULSKIENE, VirginijaDUMITH, Samuel C.DZERVE, VilnisDZIANKOWSKA-ZABORSZCZYK, ElzbietaEDDIE, RickyEGBAGBE, Eruke E.EGGERTSEN, RobertEIBEN, GabrieleEKELUND, UlfATI, Jalila ElELDEMIRE-SHEARER, DeniseELIASEN, MarieELLIOTT, PaulENGLE-STONE, ReinaERASMUS, Rajiv T.EREM, CihangirERIKSEN, LouiseERIKSSON, Johan G.PENA, Jorge Escobedo-de laEVANS, AlunFAEH, DavidFALL, Caroline H.SANT'ANGELO, Victoria FarrugiaFARZADFAR, FarshadFATTAHI, Mohammad R.FELIX-REDONDO, Francisco J.FERGUSON, Trevor S.FERNANDES, Romulo A.FERNANDEZ-BERGES, DanielFERRANTE, DanielFERRARI, MarikaFERRECCIO, CatterinaFERRER, EldridgeFERRIERES, JeanFIJALKOWSKA, AnnaFINK, GuntherFISCHER, KristaFLORES, Eric MonterubioFOEGER, BernhardFOO, Leng HuatFORSLUND, Ann-SofieFORSNER, MariaFOUAD, Heba M.FRANCIS, Damian K.FRANCO, Maria do CarmoFRANCO, Oscar H.FRONTERA, GuillermoFUCHS, Flavio D.FUCHS, Sandra C.FUJITA, YukiFURUSAWA, TakuroGACIONG, ZbigniewGAFENCU, MihaiGALEONE, DanielaGALVANO, FabioGAO, JingliGARCIA-DE-LA-HERA, ManoliGARETA, DickmanGARNETT, Sarah P.GASPOZ, Jean-MichelGASULL, MagdaGATES, LouiseGAZZINELLI, AndreaGEIGER, HaraldGELEIJNSE, Johanna M.GHANBARI, AliGHASEMI, ErfanGHASEMIAN, AnooshehGHEORGHE-FRONEA, Oana-FlorentinaGIAMPAOLI, SimonaGIANFAGNA, FrancescoGILL, Tiffany K.GIOVANNELLI, JonathanGIRONELLA, GlenGIWERCMAN, AleksanderGODOS, JustynaGOGEN, SibelGOLDSMITH, Rebecca A.GOLTZMAN, DavidGONCALVES, HelenGONZALEZ, Angel R.GONZALEZ-CHICA, David A.GONZALEZ-GROSS, MarcelaGONZALEZ-LEON, MargotGONZALEZ-RIVAS, Juan P.GONZALEZ-VILLALPANDO, Maria-ElenaGOTTRAND, FredericGRACA, Antonio PedroGRAFF-IVERSEN, SidselGRAFNETTER, DusanGRAJDA, AnetaGRAMMATIKOPOULOU, Maria G.GREGOR, Ronald D.GRODZICKI, TomaszGRONTVED, AndersGROSSO, GiuseppeGRUDEN, GabriellaGU, DongfengGUALDI-RUSSO, EmanuelaGUDMUNDSSON, Elias F.GUDNASON, VilmundurGUERRERO, RamiroGUESSOUS, IdrisGUIMARAES, Andre L.GULLIFORD, Martin C.GUNNLAUGSDOTTIR, JohannaGUNTER, MarcGUO, XiuhuaGUO, YinGUPTA, Prakash C.GUPTA, RajeevGUREJE, OyeGURZKOWSKA, BeataGUTIERREZ, LauraGUTZWILLER, FelixHADAEGH, FarzadHADJIGEORGIOU, Charalambos A.HAGHSHENAS, RosaHALKJAER, JytteHARDY, RebeccaKUMAR, Rachakulla HariHASSAPIDOU, MariaHATA, JunHAUGSGJERD, TeresaHE, JiangHE, YunaHEIDINGER-FELSO, ReginaHEINEN, MirjamHEJGAARD, TatjanaHENDRIKS, Marleen ElisabethHENRIQUES, AnaCADENA, Leticia HernandezHERRALA, SauliHERRERA, Victor M.HERTER-AEBERLI, IsabelleHESHMAT, RaminHILL, Allan G.HO, Sai YinHO, Suzanne C.HOBBS, MichaelHOFMAN, AlbertHOPMAN, Wilma M.HORIMOTO, Andrea R. 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G.KERIMKULOVA, AlinaKERSTING, MathildeKEY, TimothyKHADER, Yousef SalehKHALILI, DavoodKHATEEB, MohammadKHAW, Kay-TeeKHEIRI, BaharehKHOSRAVI, AlirezaKHOUW, Ilse M. S. L.KIECHL, StefanKIECHL-KOHLENDORFER, UrsulaKILLEWO, JaphetKIM, JeongseonKIM, Yeon-YongKLIMONT, JeannetteKLUMBIENE, JurateKNOFLACH, MichaelKOIRALA, BhaweshKOLLE, ElinKOLSTEREN, PatrickKOENIG, JurgenKORPELAINEN, RaijaKORROVITS, PaulKORZYCKA, MagdalenaKOSKINEN, SeppoKOUDA, KatsuyasuKOVACS, Viktoria A.KOWLESSUR, SudhirKOZIEL, SlawomirKRATZER, WolfgangKRIEMLER, SusiKRISTENSEN, Peter LundKROKSTAD, SteinarKROMHOUT, DaanKRUGER, Herculina S.KUBINOVA, RuzenaKUCIENE, RenataKUH, DianaKUJALA, Urho M.KUJUNDZIC, EnisaKULAGA, ZbigniewKUMAR, R. 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P.POSCH, GeorgPOULIMENEAS, DimitriosPOURARAM, HamedPOURSHAMS, AkramPOUSTCHI, HosseinPRADEEPA, RajendraPRICE, Alison J.PRICE, Jacqueline F.PUDER, Jardena J.PUDULE, IvetaPUHAKKA, Soile E.PUIU, MariaPUNAB, MargusQASRAWI, Radwan F.QORBANI, MostafaTran Quoc BaoRADHIKA, Madhari S.RADIC, IvanaRADISAUSKAS, RicardasRAHMAN, MahfuzarRAHMAN, MahmudurRAITAKARI, OlliRAJ, ManuRAJKUMAR, HemalathaRAKHMATULLOEV, SheraliRAO, Sudha RamachandraRAMACHANDRAN, AmbadyRAMKE, JacquelineRAMOS, ElisabeteRAMOS, RafelRAMPAL, LekhrajRAMPAL, SanjayRAO, Kodavanti MallikharjunaRASCON-PACHECO, Ramon A.RASMUSSEN, MetteREDON, JosepREGANIT, Paul Ferdinand M.REGECOVA, ValeriaREVILLA, LuisRIBAS-BARBA, LourdesRIBEIRO, RobespierreRIBOLI, ElioRIGO, FernandoRINALDO, NatasciaWIT, Tobias F. 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Citation: NATURE, v.569, n.7755, p.260-+, 2019
Abstract: Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
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Instituto do Coração - HC/InCor

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LIM/20 - Laboratório de Terapêutica Experimental

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