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Title: Highlight article: Dietary protein and exercise for preservation of lean mass and perspectives on type 2 diabetes prevention
Authors: SOUSA, Maysa Vieira deSOARES, Diana Bento da SilvaCARACA, Elaine ReisCARDOSO, Ronaldo
Citation: EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, v.244, n.12, p.992-1004, 2019
Abstract: Sedentary lifestyle and aging favor the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and their comorbidities. The loss of lean body mass reduces muscle strength, resulting in impaired functional capacity and leading to increased risks of chronic diseases with advancing age. Besides aging, conditions such as inappetence, social isolation, and inadequate dietary intake cause the loss of lean body mass and increased abdominal fatty mass, resulting in sarcopenic obesity and predisposition to type 2 diabetes. Compared to younger people, this condition is more common in the elderly owing to natural changes in body composition associated with aging. Lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and improved dietary behaviors are effective for preventing the occurrence of comorbidities. Regarding muscle nutrition, besides caloric adequacy, meeting the requirements for the consumption of dietary amino acids and proteins is important for treating sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity because muscle tissue mainly consists of proteins and is, therefore, the largest reservoir of amino acids in the body. Thus, this review discusses the effects of dietary protein on the preservation of lean body mass, improvements in the functional capacity of muscle tissue, and prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In addition, we address the effects of regular physical training associated with dietary protein strategies on lean body mass, body fat loss, and muscle strength in the elderly at a risk for type 2 diabetes development. Impact statement Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide health problem associated with obesity and sedentary lifestyle, which predisposes affected individuals to mortality and morbidity. Additionally, aging and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors increase inflammation and insulin resistance, contributing to the reduction of cytokines related to muscle nutrition and the suppression of lipogenesis, resulting in the development of sarcopenic obesity. One strategy for the prevention of T2D is the avoidance of secondary aging by participating in healthy action programs, including exercise and nutritional interventions. This minireview of several studies demonstrates the impact of physical activity and nutritional interventions on gaining or preserving muscle mass and on the functional aspects of muscles with aging. It provides information on the effect of protein, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and creatine supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and volume gain and on the prevention of the progressive decrease in muscle mass with aging in combination with maintaining regular physical activity.
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Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - LIM/18
LIM/18 - Laboratório de Carboidratos e Radioimunoensaios

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - ODS/03
ODS/03 - Saúde e bem-estar

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