Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://observatorio.fm.usp.br/handle/OPI/57874
Title: Global, regional, and national burden of diabetes from 1990 to 2021, with projections of prevalence to 2050: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
Authors: ONG, Kanyin LianeSTAFFORD, Lauryn K.MCLAUGHLIN, Susan A.BOYKO, Edward J.VOLLSET, Stein EmilSMITH, Amanda E.DALTON, Bronte E.DUPREY, JoeCRUZ, Jessica A.HAGINS, HaileyLINDSTEDT, Paulina A.AALI, AmiraliABATE, Yohannes HabtegiorgisABATE, Melsew DagneABBASIAN, MohammadrezaABBASI-KANGEVARI, ZeinabABBASI-KANGEVARI, MohsenELHAFEEZ, Samar AbdABD-RABU, RamiABDULAH, Deldar MoradABDULLAH, Abu Yousuf MdABEDI, VidaABIDI, HassanABOAGYE, Richard GyanABOLHASSANI, HassanABU-GHARBIEH, EmanABU-ZAID, AhmedADANE, Tigist DemssewADANE, Denberu EshetieADDO, Isaac YeboahADEGBOYE, Oyelola A.ADEKANMBI, VictorADEPOJU, Abiola VictorADNANI, Qorinah Estiningtyas SakilahAFOLABI, Rotimi FelixAGARWAL, GinaAGHDAM, Zahra BabaeiAGUDELO-BOTERO, MarcelaARRIAGADA, Constanza Elizabeth AguileraAGYEMANG-DUAH, WilliamsAHINKORAH, Bright OpokuAHMAD, DanishAHMAD, RizwanAHMAD, SajjadAHMAD, AqeelAHMADI, AliAHMADI, KeivanAHMED, AymanAHMED, AliAHMED, Luai A.AHMED, Syed AneesAJAMI, MarjanAKINYEMI, Rufus OlusolaHAMAD, Hanadi AlHASAN, Syed Mahfuz AlAL-AHDAL, Tareq Mohammed AliALALWAN, Tariq A.AL-ALY, ZiyadALBATAINEH, MohammadALCALDE-RABANAL, Jacqueline ElizabethALEMI, SharifullahALI, HassamALINIA, TaherehALJUNID, Syed MohamedALMUSTANYIR, SamiAL-RADDADI, Rajaa M.ALVIS-GUZMAN, NelsonAMARE, FirehiwotAMEYAW, Edward KwabenaAMIRI, SohrabAMUSA, Ganiyu AdeniyiANDREI, Catalina LilianaANJANA, Ranjit MohanANSAR, AdnanANSARI, GolnooshANSARI-MOGHADDAM, AlirezaANYASODOR, Anayochukwu EdwardARABLOO, JalalARAVKIN, Aleksandr Y.AREDA, DemelashARIFIN, HidayatARKEW, MesayARMOCIDA, BenedettaAERNLOEV, JohanARTAMONOV, Anton A.ARULAPPAN, JudieARULEBA, Raphael TaiwoARUMUGAM, AshokanARYAN, ZahraASEMU, Mulu TirunehASGHARI-JAFARABADI, MohammadASKARI, ElahehASMELASH, DanielASTELL-BURT, ThomasATHAR, MohammadATHARI, Seyyed ShamsadinATOUT, Maha Moh'd WahbiAVILA-BURGOS, LeticiaAWAISU, AhmedAZADNAJAFABAD, SinaBABAMOHAMADI, HassanBADAR, MuhammadBADAWI, AlaaBADIYE, AshishBAGHCHEGHI, NayerehBAGHERI, NasserBAGHERIEH, SaraBAH, SulaimanBAHADORY, SaeedBAI, RuhaiBAIG, Atif AminBALTATU, Ovidiu ConstantinBARADARAN, Hamid RezaBARCHITTA, MartinaBARDHAN, MainakBARENGO, Noel C.BAERNIGHAUSEN, Till WinfriedBARONE, Mark Thomaz UgliaraBARONE-ADESI, FrancescoBARROW, AmadouBASHIRI, HamidehBASIRU, AfisuBASU, SanjayBASU, SauravBATIHA, Abdul-Monim MohammadBATRA, KavitaBAYIH, Mulat TirfieBAYILEYEGN, Nebiyou SimegnewBEHNOUSH, Amir HosseinBEKELE, Alehegn BekeleBELETE, Melaku AshagrieBELGAUMI, Uzma IqbalBELO, LuisBENNETT, Derrick A.BENSENOR, Isabela M.BERHE, KidanemaryamBERHIE, Alemshet YirgaBHASKAR, SonuBHAT, Ajay NageshBHATTI, Jasvinder SinghBIKBOV, BorisBILAL, FaiqBINTORO, Bagas SuryoBITARAF, SaeidBITRA, Veera R.BJEGOVIC-MIKANOVIC, VesnaBODOLICA, VirginiaBOLOOR, ArchithBRAUER, MichaelBRAZO-SAYAVERA, JavierBRENNER, HermannBUTT, Zahid A.CALINA, DanielaCAMPOS, Luciana AparecidaCAMPOS-NONATO, Ismael R.CAO, YinCAO, ChaoCAR, JosipCARVALHO, MarciaCASTANEDA-ORJUELA, Carlos A.CATALA-LOPEZ, FerranCERIN, EsterCHADWICK, JoshuaCHANDRASEKAR, Eeshwar K.CHANIE, Gashaw SisayCHARAN, JaykaranCHATTU, Vijay KumarCHAUHAN, KirtiCHEEMA, Huzaifa AhmadABEBE, Endeshaw ChekolCHEN, SimiaoCHERBUIN, NicolasCHICHAGI, FatemehCHIDAMBARAM, Saravana BabuCHO, William C. S.CHOUDHARI, Sonali GajananCHOWDHURY, RajivCHOWDHURY, Enayet KarimCHU, Dinh-ToiCHUKWU, Isaac SundayCHUNG, Sheng-ChiaCOBERLY, KalebCOLUMBUS, AlyssaCONTRERAS, DanielaCOUSIN, EwertonCRIQUI, Michael H.CRUZ-MARTINS, NataliaCUSCHIERI, SarahDABO, BashirDADRAS, OmidDAI, XiaochenDAMASCENO, Albertino Antonio MouraDANDONA, RakhiDANDONA, LalitDAS, SaswatiDASCALU, Ana MariaDASH, Nihar RanjanDASHTI, MohsenDAVILA-CERVANTES, Claudio AlbertoCRUZ-GONGORA, Vanessa De laDEBELE, Gebiso RobaDELPASAND, KouroshDEMISSE, Fitsum WoldeDEMISSIE, Getu DebalkieDENG, XinleiDENOVA-GUTIERREZ, EdgarV, Salil DeoDERVISEVIC, EminaDESAI, Hardik DineshbhaiDESALE, Aragaw TesfawDESSIE, Anteneh MengistDESTA, FikreabDEWAN, Syed Masudur RahmanDEY, SouravDHAMA, KuldeepDHIMAL, MeghnathDIAO, NancyDIAZ, DanielDINU, MonicaDIRESS, MengistieDJALALINIA, ShirinDOAN, Linh PhuongDONGARWAR, DeepaFIGUEIREDO, Francisco Winter dos SantosDUNCAN, Bruce B.DUTTA, SiddharthaDZIEDZIC, Arkadiusz MarianEDINUR, Hisham AtanEKHOLUENETALE, MichaelEKUNDAYO, Temitope CyrusELGENDY, Islam Y.ELHADI, MuhammedEL-HUNEIDI, WaseemELMELIGY, Omar Abdelsadek AbdouELMONEM, Mohamed A.ENDESHAW, DestawESAYAS, Hawi LeulESHETU, Habitu BirhanETAEE, FarshidFADHIL, IbtihalFAGBAMIGBE, Adeniyi FrancisFAHIM, AyeshaFALAHI, ShahabFARIS, MoezAlIslam Ezzat MahmoudFARROKHPOUR, HosseinFARZADFAR, FarshadFATEHIZADEH, AliFAZLI, GhazalFENG, XiaoqiFEREDE, Tomas Y.FISCHER, FlorianFLOOD, DavidFOROUHARI, AliFOROUMADI, RohamKOUDEHI, Masoumeh ForoutanGAIDHANE, Abhay MotiramjiGAIHRE, SantoshGAIPOV, AbduzhapparGALALI, YaseenGANESAN, BalasankarGARCIA-GORDILLO, M. 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Citation: LANCET, v.402, n.10397, p.203-234, 2023
Abstract: Background Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and affects people regardless of country, age group, or sex. Using the most recent evidentiary and analytical framework from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD), we produced location-specific, age-specific, and sex-specific estimates of diabetes prevalence and burden from 1990 to 2021, the proportion of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in 2021, the proportion of the type 2 diabetes burden attributable to selected risk factors, and projections of diabetes prevalence through 2050. Methods Estimates of diabetes prevalence and burden were computed in 204 countries and territories, across 25 age groups, for males and females separately and combined; these estimates comprised lost years of healthy life, measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; defined as the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]). We used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach to estimate deaths due to diabetes, incorporating 25 666 location-years of data from vital registration and verbal autopsy reports in separate total (including both type 1 and type 2 diabetes) and type-specific models. Other forms of diabetes, including gestational and monogenic diabetes, were not explicitly modelled. Total and type 1 diabetes prevalence was estimated by use of a Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, to analyse 1527 location-years of data from the scientific literature, survey microdata, and insurance claims; type 2 diabetes estimates were computed by subtracting type 1 diabetes from total estimates. Mortality and prevalence estimates, along with standard life expectancy and disability weights, were used to calculate YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs. When appropriate, we extrapolated estimates to a hypothetical population with a standardised age structure to allow comparison in populations with different age structures. We used the comparative risk assessment framework to estimate the risk-attributable type 2 diabetes burden for 16 risk factors falling under risk categories including environmental and occupational factors, tobacco use, high alcohol use, high body-mass index (BMI), dietary factors, and low physical activity. Using a regression framework, we forecast type 1 and type 2 diabetes prevalence through 2050 with Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and high BMI as predictors, respectively. Findings In 2021, there were 529 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 500-564) people living with diabetes worldwide, and the global age-standardised total diabetes prevalence was 6 center dot 1% (5 center dot 8-6 center dot 5). At the super-region level, the highest age-standardised rates were observed in north Africa and the Middle East (9 center dot 3% [8 center dot 7-9 center dot 9]) and, at the regional level, in Oceania (12 center dot 3% [11 center dot 5-13 center dot 0]). Nationally, Qatar had the world's highest age-specific prevalence of diabetes, at 76 center dot 1% (73 center dot 1-79 center dot 5) in individuals aged 75-79 years. Total diabetes prevalence-especially among older adults-primarily reflects type 2 diabetes, which in 2021 accounted for 96 center dot 0% (95 center dot 1-96 center dot 8) of diabetes cases and 95 center dot 4% (94 center dot 9-95 center dot 9) of diabetes DALYs worldwide. In 2021, 52 center dot 2% (25 center dot 5-71 center dot 8) of global type 2 diabetes DALYs were attributable to high BMI. The contribution of high BMI to type 2 diabetes DALYs rose by 24 center dot 3% (18 center dot 5-30 center dot 4) worldwide between 1990 and 2021. By 2050, more than 1 center dot 31 billion (1 center dot 22-1 center dot 39) people are projected to have diabetes, with expected age-standardised total diabetes prevalence rates greater than 10% in two super-regions: 16 center dot 8% (16 center dot 1-17 center dot 6) in north Africa and the Middle East and 11 center dot 3% (10 center dot 8-11 center dot 9) in Latin America and Caribbean. By 2050, 89 (43 center dot 6%) of 204 countries and territories will have an age-standardised rate greater than 10%. Interpretation Diabetes remains a substantial public health issue. Type 2 diabetes, which makes up the bulk of diabetes cases, is largely preventable and, in some cases, potentially reversible if identified and managed early in the disease course. However, all evidence indicates that diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, primarily due to a rise in obesity caused by multiple factors. Preventing and controlling type 2 diabetes remains an ongoing challenge. It is essential to better understand disparities in risk factor profiles and diabetes burden across populations, to inform strategies to successfully control diabetes risk factors within the context of multiple and complex drivers. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Appears in Collections:

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - FM/MCM
Departamento de Clínica Médica - FM/MCM

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - LIM/20
LIM/20 - Laboratório de Terapêutica Experimental

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - ODS/03
ODS/03 - Saúde e bem-estar


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