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Title: Urban air pollution: a representative survey of PM2.5 mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities
Authors: MIRANDA, Regina Maura deANDRADE, Maria de FatimaFORNARO, AdalgizaASTOLFO, RosanaANDRE, Paulo Afonso deSALDIVA, Paulo
Citation: AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, v.5, n.1, Special Issue, p.63-77, 2012
Abstract: In urban areas of Brazil, vehicle emissions are the principal source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The World Health Organization air quality guidelines state that the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 should be below 10 mu g m(-3). In a collaboration of Brazilian institutions, coordinated by the University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine and conducted from June 2007 to August 2008, PM2.5 mass was monitored at sites with high traffic volumes in six Brazilian state capitals. We employed gravimetry to determine PM2.5 mass concentrations, reflectance to quantify black carbon concentrations, X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition, and ion chromatography to determine the composition and concentrations of anions and cations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations and proportions of black carbon (BC) in the cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Recife, and Porto Alegre were 28.1 +/- 13.6 mu g m(-3) (38% BC), 17.2 +/- 11.2 mu g m(-3) (20% BC), 14.7 +/- 7.7 mu g m(-3) (31% BC), 14.4 +/- 9.5 mu g m(-3) (30% BC), 7.3 +/- 3.1 mu g m(-3) (26% BC), and 13.4 +/- 9.9 mu g m(-3) (26% BC), respectively. Sulfur and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, and Fe), derived from fuel combustion and soil resuspension, respectively, were the principal elements of the PM2.5 mass. We discuss the long-term health effects for each metropolitan region in terms of excess mortality risk, which translates to greater health care expenditures. This information could prove useful to decision makers at local environmental agencies.
Appears in Collections:Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - FM/MPT
Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - HC/ICHC
Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - HC/InCor
Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - LIM/05

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