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Title: Vehicle emissions and PM2.5 mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities
Authors: ANDRADE, Maria de FatimaMIRANDA, Regina Maura deFORNARO, AdalgizaKERR, AmericoOYAMA, BeatrizANDRE, Paulo Afonso deSALDIVA, Paulo
Citation: AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, v.5, n.1, Special Issue, p.79-88, 2012
Abstract: In Brazil, the principal source of air pollution is the combustion of fuels (ethanol, gasohol, and diesel). In this study, we quantify the contributions that vehicle emissions make to the urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass in six state capitals in Brazil, collecting data for use in a larger project evaluating the impact of air pollution on human health. From winter 2007 to winter 2008, we collected 24-h PM2.5 samples, employing gravimetry to determine PM2.5 mass concentrations; reflectance to quantify black carbon concentrations; X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition; and ion chromatography to determine the composition and concentrations of anions and cations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in the cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and Recife were 28, 17.2, 14.7, 14.4, 13.4, and 7.3 mu g/m(3), respectively. In Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, black carbon explained approximately 30% of the PM2.5 mass. We used receptor models to identify distinct source-related PM2.5 fractions and correlate those fractions with daily mortality rates. Using specific rotation factor analysis, we identified the following principal contributing factors: soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions and biomass burning (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor). In all six cities, vehicle emissions explained at least 40% of the PM2.5 mass. Elemental composition determination with receptor modeling proved an adequate strategy to identify air pollution sources and to evaluate their short- and long-term effects on human health. Our data could inform decisions regarding environmental policies vis-a-vis health care costs.
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Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - FM/MPT
Departamento de Patologia - FM/MPT

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - HC/ICHC
Instituto Central - HC/ICHC

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - HC/InCor
Instituto do Coração - HC/InCor

Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - LIM/05
LIM/05 - Laboratório de Poluição Atmosférica Experimental

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