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bookPart 6 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Impact of Religion and Spirituality in Older Persons
(2019) LUCCHETTI, G.; VITORINO, L. M.; NASRI, F.; LUCCHETTI, A. L. G.
The world’s population is rapidly aging. This phenomenon imposes several challenges to the modern society, since the older population is very heterogeneous and the aging process is multifactorial and multidimensional. In order to adapt and cope with the physiological and pathological aspects of aging, older adults frequently use several coping mechanisms, including their spiritual and religious beliefs. This chapter will provide an overview on the relationship between spirituality/religiosity (S/R) and health in the aged; including the increase of spiritual/religious beliefs in older adults and the relationship between S/R and well-being, quality of life, social support, mental and physical health. We will also present the possible mechanisms for this relationship, the role of religious struggles and the clinical implications for geriatricians and gerontologists. In summary, there is a consolidated scientific production in this field, pointing to a generally positive influence of S/R on several health outcomes, such as lower levels of depression, better cognitive functioning, lower morbidity and mortality, better functional status and higher scores of quality of life and well-being. Nevertheless, some patients could have a negative influence of S/R on their medical outcomes (increasing mental health problems and even mortality). The mechanisms for this relationship are not totally elucidated and studies include cortisol levels, inflammatory and immunological markers. Health professionals dealing with older persons should be aware of the spiritual and religious beliefs of patients in order to provide a more comprehensive and holistic care. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
bookPart 9 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Classification of MRI under the presence of disease heterogeneity using multi-task learning: Application to bipolar disorder
(2015) WANG, X.; ZHANG, T.; CHAIM, T. M.; ZANETTI, M. V.; DAVATZIKOS, C.
Heterogeneity in psychiatric and neurological disorders has undermined our ability to understand the pathophysiology underlying their clinical manifestations. In an effort to better distinguish clinical subtypes, many disorders, such as Bipolar Disorder, have been further sub-categorized into subgroups, albeit with criteria that are not very clear, reproducible and objective. Imaging, along with pattern analysis and classification methods, offers promise for developing objective and quantitative ways for disease subtype categorization. Herein, we develop such a method using learning multiple tasks, assuming that each task corresponds to a disease subtype but that subtypes share some common imaging characteristics, along with having distinct features. In particular, we extend the original SVM method by incorporating the sparsity and the group sparsity techniques to allow simultaneous joint learning for all diagnostic tasks. Experiments on Multi-Task Bipolar Disorder classification demonstrate the advantages of our proposed methods compared to other state-of-art pattern analysis approaches. © International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
bookPart 9 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Conceptualizing Spirituality and Religiousness
(2019) DAMIANO, R. F.; PERES, M. F. P.; SENA, M. A. B.
Research on spirituality, religion and health has been growing considerably when analyzing the last 20 years. Much of this research concerns to patients’ opinions and desires on medical treatment, specifically concerning the inclusion of patients’ spiritual/religious issues and how it can influence the health outcome. However, there is still a lack of consensus about the definition of spirituality, and this need might affect the analysis of how the term “spiritual” have been understood by patients and health care providers, and how spirituality might affect patients’ mental and physical health. Nowadays, researchers debate about how is the best way to understand spirituality, and if is possible to standardize the conceptualization of this concept. Two important schools of thought debate what is the best way to understand spirituality scientifically. The first group supports the inclusive (comprehensive) conceptualization, and the second support the narrow (or religious) idea of spirituality. Trough this chapter we will discuss both conceptual frameworks and also reinforce our idea about religion, and how it can influence our understanding of spirituality, especially on the twenty-first century. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
bookPart 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Functional analysis of interventions with parents: Parental orientation or parent training?
(2022) PRETTE, G. Del; PILATTI, C. D.; MODERNELL, L. M.; DIB, R. R.
Interventions with parents in Clinical Behavior Analysis for Children aim at modifying the parents' behaviors, with a view to changing their interaction with the child and, in this way, promoting behavioral change. In this chapter, we propose a functional analysis of aspects of the intervention with parents, which we systematize in three axes: (1) child target behaviors, in turn classified into (1a) contingencies for child's ""OK"" responses and (1b) contingencies for child's ""non-OK"" responses; (2) classes of parenting practices, namely, (2a) precurrent parental behaviors, (2b) contingency arrangement behaviors, and (2c) parent's behaviors in interaction with the child; and (3) clinician's assessment and intervention strategies, classified into (3a) parental orientation and (3b) parent training. The functional analysis of the parent training model suggests that its strategies allow for greater clinician control over the three classes of parenting practices, which, in turn, are the means by which the clinician modifies the child's target behaviors. Finally, we propose that this systematization contributes to the reflection on the current practices of interventions with parents and to research comparing the effectiveness of different interventions or even to the construction of new proposals. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.
bookPart 3 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Peptide vaccine against paracoccidioidomycosis
(2017) TABORDA, C. P.; TRAVASSOS, L. R.
The chapter reviews methods utilized for the isolation and characterization of a promising immunogen candidate, aiming at a human vaccine against paracoccidioidomycosis. Peptide P10 carries a T-CD4+ epitope and was identified as an internal sequence of the major diagnostic antigen known as gp43 glycoprotein. It successfully treated massive intratracheal infections by virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in combination with chemotherapy. An introduction about the systemic mycosis was found essential to understand the various options that were considered to design prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine protocols using peptide P10. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media LLC.
bookPart 1 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Alzheimer’s Disease and the Volume of Hippocampal Subfields: Cluster Analysis Using Neuroimaging Data
(2019) PACHI, C. G. Fonseca; TORRALBO, L.; YAMAMOTO, J. F.
This study analyzes the presence of volumetric changes in subfields of the hippocampus using structural MR image from a large database of volunteers, selected and screened in three distinct groups of elderly subjects: Diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or cognitive impairment mild (MCI) and control group (CG). Images were processed using the FreeSurfer (FS) software methodology specifically developed for automated segmentation of these hippocampal subfields and this selected dataset has based a dissertation research about aging. Statistical tools allowed evaluating the presence of correlation between age and volumetric changes of hippocampal subfields in the advancing age. In addition, clustering analysis showed important similarities between the volumes of the hippocampal subfields of these subjects. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
bookPart 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Low Back Strain or Sprain
(2018) ABD, O. H. El; AMADERA, J. E. D.
Low back pain is a prevalent condition associated with work absenteeism, disability, and large health care costs. It is estimated that 50% to 80% of adults experience at least one episode of acute low back pain in their lives. The goals of the clinician evaluating patients with an episode of acute low back pain are to have a working differential diagnosis of the condition and its etiology, to rule out radiculopathy or other serious medical causes, to have a rehabilitation plan that aims to prevent recurrence of this episode, to educate the patient about the pathologic process, and to formulate a management plan if the condition does not improve promptly. Most patients will recover within 2 weeks. The cornerstone for a complete recovery and the prevention of a recurrence of lumbar strain or sprain or the transformation to chronic low back pain is participation in a regular spine stabilization program. Surgical intervention is not indicated in the management of acute low back pain without radiculopathy causing progressive neurologic deficits. However, if symptoms change from axial low back pain to radicular pain, weakness develops in one or both lower extremities, or pain persists, the clinician should promptly order imaging studies. Further management is required as soon as possible to prevent deterioration of the patient’s condition. © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
bookPart 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Baker Cyst
(2018) ROSENBERG, D. C.; AMADERA, J. E. D.
Baker cyst, the most common cyst in the posterior knee, affects approximately 19% of asymptomatic adults and 6.3% of children. Three factors are key to the formation of Baker cyst: (1) communication between the knee joint and popliteal bursae, (2) one-way valve effect, and (3) unequal pressure between the joint and bursae during varying angles of knee movement. Anatomically, the lack of supporting structures in this area may predispose this region of the popliteal space to cyst formation. Typical symptoms, if present, include swelling, pain, and stiffness exacerbated by activity such as walking. Symptoms are most readily elicited when knee flexion compresses the fluid-filled cyst, although knee extension may also cause tension on the cyst by the extended gastrocnemius-soleus muscles. Intervention is needed only when a Baker cyst is symptomatic. The simplest treatment is to aspirate the fluid, because aspiration collapses the cyst and the symptoms consequently disappear. However, treatment of the cyst alone may not be adequate, and treatment of the underlying joint disease may be necessary. Surgical excision is attempted only after all other methods have failed and the cyst is sufficiently large and remains symptomatic. © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
bookPart 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Bone Quality Assessment at the Atomic Scale
(2020) ROLLO, J. M. D. A.; BOFFA, R. S.; CESAR, R.; ERBERELI, R.; SCHWAB, D. C.; LEIVAS, T. P.
The assessment of osteoporosis regarding bone mass and microarchitecture “quality” contributes in determining fracture risk. Therefore, the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite may indicate the quality of trabecular bones through the identification of crystallite sizes, microhardness and microdeformation values and calcium and phosphorous proportions in the three types of bones: normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic. Nine L1 vertebrae-dried trabecular bones from human cadavers were used. The characterization of the three types of bones was made through scanning electron microscopy, EDS, microhardness, and X-ray diffractometry with the Rietveld refinement method. The results show that the microstructural characterization possibilities the identification of the three types of bones: normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic, allowing the detection of osteoporosis based on bone quality. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.
bookPart 0 Citação(ões) na Scopus
Childhood ependymoma
(2018) VILLAR, R. C.; MERCHANT, T. E.
Childhood ependymoma (EP) is a complex and malignant tumor that often arises in difficult locations in young children who suffer from the effects of tumor and aggressive surgery prior to consideration of adjuvant therapy, which is high-dose irradiation. Radiation therapy for EP has evolved considerably during the past 25 years both in methods and indications. Highly-focused irradiation administered post-operatively with limited margins surrounding the residual tumor and/or tumor bed in children of all ages is the current standard. The past history of radiation therapy for EP includes larger treatment volumes, even craniospinal irradiation, restricted to older children and delay or omission of radiation therapy in young patients. Indeed, during an era when the use of radiation therapy has been removed as a standard primary or adjuvant therapy for many childhood tumors, the use of radiation therapy has increased in the treatment of childhood EP and the excellent results and improved functional outcomes have served as an example of the benefit of newer treatment methods and template for the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of other tumors that involved young children. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018.